5 Levels Of LLM Summarizing: Novice to Expert

Greg Kamradt (Data Indy)
4 May 202319:19

TLDRThis video explores five levels of text summarization using language models, starting from novice to expert. It demonstrates summarizing sentences, paragraphs, and entire books, including an innovative method for book summarization that involves extracting key sections through embeddings and clustering. The process involves breaking down the text, creating embeddings, clustering similar sections, and summarizing representative parts. The video also touches on summarizing an unknown amount of text using agents, which is still an area of active research. Viewers are encouraged to experiment with these techniques and share their findings.


  • 📚 The video discusses five levels of summarization using a language model, starting from novice to expert.
  • 🔑 Summarization is a primary use case for language models, allowing for the extraction of important information from large texts.
  • 📝 The first level involves basic summarization of a few sentences using a simple prompt and adjusting instructions for clarity.
  • 📑 Level two introduces prompt templates to summarize paragraphs, demonstrating how to dynamically insert text into a template.
  • 📚 Level three uses a map-reduce method to summarize individual chunks of a document and then summarize those summaries.
  • 📈 Level four involves summarizing an entire book by extracting the most representative sections using embeddings and clustering.
  • 📊 The method for book summarization includes dimensionality reduction and clustering to visually represent different sections of the book.
  • 🔍 Level five addresses summarizing an unknown amount of text using agents, which involves researching and summarizing information from multiple sources.
  • 🤖 Agents are still in development and can be used for more complex research tasks as they become more advanced.
  • 📈 The video provides a step-by-step guide for each level of summarization, including code snippets and explanations.
  • 💡 The presenter encourages viewers to try these methods on their own and share their experiences with the community.

Q & A

  • What is the main topic of the video '5 Levels Of LLM Summarizing: Novice to Expert'?

    -The video discusses the process of summarizing text using a language model, covering five levels of summarization from novice to expert.

  • What is the first level of summarization demonstrated in the video?

    -The first level involves using a basic prompt to summarize a couple of sentences, adjusting the instructions to get a simpler summary suitable for a five-year-old.

  • How does the video approach summarizing multiple paragraphs in level two?

    -In level two, the video uses prompt templates to dynamically insert essays into the template and generate one-sentence summaries for each essay.

  • What method is introduced in level three for summarizing larger documents?

    -Level three introduces a map-reduce method where the document is chunked into pieces, each chunk is summarized, and then a summary of the summaries is created.

  • Can you explain the concept of 'map-reduce' used in the video?

    -Map-reduce is a method where a large document is divided into smaller chunks (map), each chunk is processed (reduced) to a summary, and then these summaries are combined to form an overall summary.

  • What technique is used in level four to summarize an entire book?

    -In level four, the technique used is called 'best representation vectors', which involves extracting important sections of the book, summarizing those sections, and then creating a summary of the summaries.

  • How does the video handle the summarization of an unknown amount of text in level five?

    -In level five, the video uses agents to perform research and summarize information from multiple sources, such as Wikipedia, to provide a summary of an unknown amount of text.

  • What is the significance of token limits when working with language models?

    -Token limits are significant because they determine the amount of text that can be processed at one time. As the number of tokens increases with larger documents, different handling methods are required to manage the text effectively.

  • How does the video demonstrate the use of embeddings and clustering for summarizing a book?

    -The video demonstrates by splitting the book into chunks, creating embeddings for each chunk, clustering these embeddings to find similar sections, and then selecting the most representative section from each cluster to summarize.

  • What is the purpose of using dimensionality reduction in the clustering process shown in the video?

    -Dimensionality reduction is used to simplify the complex vector data into a two-dimensional representation, making it easier to visualize and understand the clusters formed during the summarization process.

  • How does the video suggest improving the summarization process?

    -The video suggests that improvements can be made by experimenting with different clustering methods, refining the prompts used for summarization, and leveraging advancements in language model capabilities.



📚 Introduction to Text Summarization Techniques

The script begins by introducing the concept of summarizing texts using language models, highlighting its importance in extracting key information from large volumes of text. The video aims to guide viewers from novice to expert level in understanding and applying various summarization techniques. The first level involves using a basic prompt to summarize a few sentences, starting with importing the OpenAI API key and demonstrating the summarization of a Wikipedia passage on Philosophy. Adjustments to the prompt lead to different types of summaries, including a simplified explanation suitable for a five-year-old.


🔍 Summarizing Paragraphs with Prompt Templates

The second level discusses the use of prompt templates to summarize multiple paragraphs, exemplified by summarizing essays from Paul Graham. The process involves creating a list of essays, dynamically inserting them into a prompt template, and generating one-sentence summaries for each. The script also mentions the importance of adjusting the number of tokens in the prompt to manage larger documents effectively.


📚 Advanced Summarization with MapReduce Method

Level three introduces a more complex summarization approach using the MapReduce method. This involves breaking down a document into chunks, summarizing each chunk individually, and then summarizing those summaries to get an overview of the entire document. The example uses 'Paul Graham's essays' to demonstrate this method, which includes importing necessary libraries, splitting the document into chunks, and summarizing each chunk to capture key points.


📈 Summarizing an Entire Book Using Vector Representations

Level four delves into summarizing an entire book, which is the most complex level of summarization covered in the script. The method involves extracting important sections of the book using embeddings and clustering to identify representative parts of the text. The example uses 'Into Thin Air' by Jon Krakauer, detailing the process of converting the book's content into a text file, splitting it into chunks, creating embeddings, clustering the vectors, and selecting the most representative documents to build a summary.

🤖 Summarizing Unknown Text with Agents

The final level, level five, explores summarizing an unknown amount of text using agents. This advanced technique is still under active research and development. The script provides a simple example where an agent is tasked with searching Wikipedia for information on Napoleon Bonaparte and Serena Williams, then identifying commonalities between them. The agent's actions are logged, demonstrating the process of gathering and summarizing information from multiple sources.




Summarization refers to the process of condensing a large body of text into a shorter, more manageable form while retaining the key points and overall message. In the context of the video, summarization is the core theme, focusing on how to effectively distill information from lengthy texts using language models. The script discusses various levels of summarization, from novice to expert, and demonstrates techniques for summarizing sentences, paragraphs, and even entire books.

💡Language Model

A language model is an artificial intelligence system that is trained to predict and generate human-like text based on the input it receives. In the video, language models are utilized to perform summarization tasks at different levels. The script mentions using a language model to generate summaries in a manner understandable even to a five-year-old, showcasing the flexibility and adaptability of these models.

💡Prompt Template

A prompt template is a pre-defined structure for inputting data or instructions into a language model. It allows for the easy modification of certain elements while keeping the overall format consistent. In the script, prompt templates are used to streamline the summarization of multiple paragraphs, making it easier to insert different texts and receive summaries in a uniform manner.


MapReduce is a programming model and an associated implementation for processing and generating large datasets. In the video, the MapReduce method is applied to break down a lengthy document into smaller chunks, summarize each chunk individually, and then create a summary of those summaries. This approach is useful for handling large volumes of text that may exceed the token limit of a language model.


Embeddings in the context of natural language processing (NLP) are numerical representations of words, phrases, or documents that capture semantic meaning. The script describes using embeddings to transform text chunks into vectors, which can then be analyzed and clustered to identify key sections of a book that can be summarized.


Clustering is a data analysis technique that groups a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar to each other than to those in other groups. In the script, clustering is used after generating embeddings to find similar text chunks and select a diverse set of representative sections from a book for summarization.

💡Vector Store

A vector store is a database designed to store, search, and retrieve embedding vectors efficiently. It plays a crucial role in the script's process of summarizing a book by holding the embeddings of text chunks, which are then used for clustering and selecting key sections for summarization.

💡Dimensionality Reduction

Dimensionality reduction is a process in data analysis that reduces the number of random variables under consideration and can be divided into feature selection and feature extraction. In the video, t-SNE, a type of dimensionality reduction algorithm, is used to visualize high-dimensional embedding vectors in two dimensions, making it easier to see distinct clusters of text sections.


K-means is a popular clustering algorithm that partitions the data points into K distinct non-overlapping subgroups (clusters) where each data point belongs to only one group. The script mentions using k-means clustering to group similar text embeddings together, which aids in identifying representative sections of a book for summarization.


In the context of AI, agents are autonomous systems that can perform tasks, make decisions, or take actions on behalf of users. The script discusses using agents to summarize an unknown amount of text by conducting research and searches on Wikipedia, demonstrating a more advanced application of language models in summarization tasks.

💡Verbose Summary

A verbose summary is a detailed and comprehensive summary that aims to capture all the essential elements of the original text without significant information loss. The script mentions generating a verbose summary of a book by combining summaries of selected key sections, ensuring that the final summary is thorough and informative.


Exploring the five levels of summarization with language models from novice to expert.

Importing the OpenAI API key for basic summarization tasks.

Using a basic prompt to summarize a passage on Philosophy from Wikipedia.

Adjusting instructions for simpler summaries suitable for a five-year-old's understanding.

Introducing prompt templates for summarizing multiple paragraphs.

Using a map-reduce method to summarize large documents by chunking and summarizing individual sections.

Employing embeddings and clustering to identify key sections of a book for summarization.

Selecting the most representative sections of a book using vector embeddings and clustering.

Performing a map-reduce operation manually to avoid timeout errors and summarize selected book sections.

Creating a custom map prompt for summarizing book sections with a minimum of three paragraphs.

Using GPT 4 for a verbose summary that captures the essence of the book without information loss.

Summarizing an entire book, 'Into Thin Air,' about the 1996 Everest disaster, using the best representation vectors method.

Utilizing dimensionality reduction and graphing to visualize clusters of book sections.

Selecting indices from clusters that represent the most important parts of the book.

Combining summaries of selected book sections to create a comprehensive book summary.

Exploring the use of agents for summarizing an unknown amount of text with a cautionary note on their reliability.

Initiating an agent to perform a research project by searching Wikipedia for information on Napoleon Bonaparte and Serena Williams.

Identifying commonalities between historical and modern figures through agent-based research.