# What is Quantum Computing and why should we care?

### Summary

TLDRIn this LinkedIn live video, GTH sharf provides an introduction to quantum computing for a general audience. He draws connections to quantum physics concepts like superposition and Schrodinger's cat to explain how quantum computing works. Sharf explains that quantum computing can solve problems exponentially faster than traditional computing by processing multiple possibilities simultaneously. However, quantum computing requires extremely specific physical environments to maintain the quantum state. Sharf aims to increase understanding of quantum computing and its potential applications, like accelerating artificial intelligence.

### Takeaways

- 😀 The concept of quantum physics allows for the existence of multiple realities and infinite possibilities
- 👨🔬 Quantum computing offers exponential increases in computers' ability to solve problems compared to traditional computing
- 💡 Grover's algorithm shows quantum computing's potential - finding a name in a phone book of 100 million in just 10,000 operations
- 😺 Schrodinger's cat thought experiment demonstrates the concept of superposition in quantum physics
- 🌀 Superposition means multiple states can exist at once, enabling quantum computing's power
- ❄️ Extremely cold temperatures are required to enable qubits to enter superposition states
- 🚀 If combined with AI, quantum computing could massively accelerate its capabilities
- 🖥️ Traditional computing uses binary code of 1s and 0s, while quantum uses cubits allowing many more simultaneous states
- 🎥 Understanding quantum physics concepts through sci-fi like Star Trek can be informative and engaging
- 💪 There are still challenges in stabilizing qubits to reliably harness the potential of quantum computing

### Q & A

### What are some examples of quantum computing mentioned in pop culture?

-The video mentions Star Trek, Quantum Leap, and Avengers: Endgame as examples of quantum computing being referenced in pop culture.

### How does quantum computing provide an exponential increase in computing power compared to traditional computing?

-Quantum computing utilizes quantum bits (qubits) which can represent multiple states simultaneously, unlike traditional binary bits which can only represent 1s or 0s. This allows quantum computers to process exponentially more information.

### What is superposition in quantum physics?

-Superposition refers to how qubits can represent multiple states at once. This allows quantum computers to analyze many possibilities simultaneously.

### What is Schrodinger's cat and how does it relate to quantum computing?

-Schrodinger's cat is a thought experiment that illustrates superposition in quantum physics. The cat in the box exists in multiple states (alive and dead) until observed, like a qubit exists in multiple states until measured.

### What are some challenges facing practical quantum computing?

-Key challenges include maintaining the delicate quantum states required, lack of stability, and the extreme conditions like absolute zero temperature needed.

### How might quantum computing impact artificial intelligence?

-Quantum computing could exponentially increase the speed at which AI can process data and conduct tasks. This could greatly accelerate AI capabilities.

### What is Grover's algorithm?

-Grover's algorithm is a quantum algorithm for searching databases rapidly. It illustrates how quantum computing could search huge datasets faster than classical computers.

### What are cubits?

-Qubits are the quantum version of classical binary bits. While bits can represent 0 or 1, qubits can represent 0, 1 or a superposition of both states.

### How is quantum computing different from classical computing?

-Classical computing uses binary bits and sequential processing. Quantum computing utilizes qubits and parallel processing of multiple states to achieve exponential speedups.

### What fields might benefit from quantum computing?

-Fields like artificial intelligence, drug discovery, financial modeling, cryptography, and chemistry could see transformative changes from quantum computing.

### Outlines

### 😄 Introducing Quantum Computing and Science Fiction References

The host introduces the topic of quantum computing, explaining his interest due to being a science fiction fan. He references various sci-fi shows involving parallel realities like Star Trek and Quantum Leap. He aims to explain what quantum computing is, why it matters, and how it exponentially increases computing power.

### 🖖 Explaining Quantum Physics Concepts through Star Trek

The host uses a Star Trek episode with parallel realities to explain concepts like quantum states, superpositions, and the idea that we experience just one reality out of many possibilities. He also recommends the German show Dark which dives deep into quantum realities.

### 😺 Explaining Superpositions through Schrodinger's Cat

The host explains the concept of superpositions through the Schrodinger's Cat thought experiment. The metaphor involves a cat in a box with a mechanism triggered by radioactive decay that has an equal chance of releasing poison, killing the cat. From outside the box, the cat has a superposition of both alive and dead states.

### 👨💻 Linking Superpositions to Faster Computing

The host links the concept of superpositions, where multiple states can exist at once, to exponentially faster computing. Traditional binary computing has speed limits, but quantum computing can see all possibilities at once. He gives the example of Grover's algorithm for fast searching.

### 🤯 Challenges of Building Quantum Computers

In concluding remarks, the host explains challenges with stability of maintaining quantum states and the extreme conditions like absolute zero temperature needed. But progress is being made in overcoming barriers to build quantum computers.

### Mindmap

### Keywords

### 💡Quantum Computing

### 💡Superposition

### 💡Qubit

### 💡Artificial Intelligence

### 💡Exponential Processing Power

### 💡Quantum Algorithm

### 💡Quantum State

### 💡Quantum Physics

### 💡Qubits

### 💡Absolute Zero

### Highlights

Quantum Computing is linked to quantum physics and is exponentially more powerful than traditional computing

The concept of superposition in quantum physics allows multiple possibilities to exist at once

Schrödinger's cat thought experiment illustrates superposition and the idea that different realities can occur at the same time

Qubits allow for multiple possibilities compared to the binary states of regular computing

Quantum computing allows computers to see all possibilities at once and select the best option

Grover's algorithm shows how quantum computing could search large datasets incredibly fast

Practical quantum computing requires extremely precise physical conditions like absolute zero temperatures

Maintaining the delicate quantum state is a key challenge limiting stability and scalability of quantum computers

Popular culture references like Star Trek illustrate ideas of alternate realities related to quantum physics

The TV show Dark provides a good example of quantum realities in science fiction

Quantum computing could massively accelerate artificial intelligence capabilities

Understanding quantum computing concepts helps appreciate the scale of technological change

It's hard to be an expert in emerging technologies, the goal is gaining conceptual understanding

Breaking down complex topics makes broader concepts more accessible

Quantum computing is an exciting frontier, though current practical applications are limited

### Transcripts

[Music]

hello and welcome to LinkedIn live with

me GTH sharf I am glad you could be here

on this Tuesday January 2 6 January 30th

I've lost track of time because it's

been a busy month and the days are

flying by um I'm glad you could be here

for this ambitious

short uh probably part of a series

introduction to Quantum Computing which

has gathered more theme in terms of

being in the new cycle along with

artificial intelligence and I wanted to

tackle this because this is very

interesting to me quantum

Computing mainly because of my history

with science fiction I've been a science

fiction fan for those that followed me

long long live and prosper for for a

number of years since it was a young

young kid going to Star Trek conventions

meeting Star Trek actors including John

Delany q and in that space of Science

Fiction there's these in these episodes

esec especially in Star Trek with

different realities and then there were

other shows that had the word Quantum in

it like quantum Quantum Leap with Scott

bacula if you're a Quantum Leap fan

please let me know give me a like send

me a message because that was a great

great show so as a science fiction buff

you the the the word Quantum is is

sometimes used in these episodes and

films and and somewhat is part of

endgame with Avengers so recent

relatively

recent um contemporary films and so

there's this this concept around what

this is but what is it what is quantum

Quantum Computing why should we care it

is very very very difficult to explain

Quantum Computing it is easier to maybe

talk about what it can do for us it's

ultimately in long story short it just

just exponentially increases the

abilities for computers algorithms uh

problem solving devices to to solve

problems which is

potentially really good for all kinds of

uses especially when we talk about

artificial intelligence and I mean

exponentially but that might not be

enough like how does it exponentially

increase the ability for computers to

solve problems more than what we already

have and so I'm going to try and Tackle

this in a very short LinkedIn live and

then adds layers to this I'm hoping to

make this an ond demand program so we're

going to get into this but we're going

to get into to this my way or the

highway because it's just the way I

operate um because I already mentioned

some popular culture references as we

talk about Quantum Computing because

it's interesting to go into those

actually to break down why Quantum

Computing is just a massive massive

level up to anything we know in modern

Computing that includes supercomputers

that are used for blockchain your own

laptop your phone anything that is used

as an electronic

device Quantum Computing is just a

massive massive uh leap up so how do we

want to start this conversation do I

want to explain what quantum physics is

quantum states are superpositions cubits

there's just it's a m it's it's tied to

quantum physics so it's Einstein it's if

you've seen Oppenheimer there all a lot

of those scientists are part of bringing

the concept of quantum physics into the

space where we have a an area of science

dedicated to it but how does that relate

to Computing so you could go into this

in many different ways I am not a

Quantum physicist I I also do not work

directly in Quantum Computing but I want

to understand this on a broader term so

we can understand as CPAs lawyers all

those that are LinkedIn what this really

means so that's the way I'm going to

look at it my brother in fact though did

go to Harvard did his PhD in a adjac

adjacent subject area to quantum physics

so I I should maybe bring him on here as

a guest I haven't figured out exactly

how to do the guest feature of restream

but maybe one time I I'll have him on

there but sometimes when I've had him on

there he's very smart intelligent he

goes really quickly into the deep stuff

and I'm lost within like 30 seconds of

our of our conversation but we'll see if

that might make a good interview so what

do I got here what do I have as a

picture here this is from Star Trek the

next generation an episode called

parallels and I I told you I'm a Star

Trek fan now why am I talking about this

when you came here to listen to Quantum

Computing well this is an episode in

when Lieutenant Warf beams back up to

the Enterprise and thinks he's on the

Enterprise goes to his dorm his room on

the Enterprise and realizes something is

different he's actually in a

relationship with Deanna Troy which he

wasn't in before and he's in a different

reality and he doesn't understand what's

happened and the reality just keeps sh

shifting and shifting keeps going into

different scenarios and what they do in

this episode they actually break down

quantum physics they basically say

that Lieutenant Warf is basically

hopping between the infinite

possibilities that exist within his life

and that he's just going in between them

um again we've seen this in popular

culture sliding doors as an example but

in this case he just keeps going through

the idea is that you potentially have

infinite possibilities every choice that

we make we can make make any of the

choices I could have chosen to do

LinkedIn live I could have chosen not to

do LinkedIn live I could have chosen to

do some work go for a walk like there's

multiple possibilities for every

decision that we make and in quantum

physics the idea is that we make all

those choices and the one that we

experience is the one that we're living

in it doesn't mean the other ones didn't

happen so in this episode of of star

trck next Generations all those

possibilities that Lieutenant Warf has

ever could have ever experienced sort of

come together and that's why you're

seeing all these different Enterprises

and anyway we're going to get into this

this Quantum States super positions then

we'll tie it back into to what it means

for I I'm excited about this stuff I

love science fiction and this is

actually not science fiction this is a

reality I'm going to recommend a show if

you really want to get

into Quantum realities and and and some

of the ways in which science fiction is

using them this is one of the best shows

I've ever seen loved it it's called it's

a German show and it is amazing it is it

just takes you on a ride that you have

no idea where it's going um and I don't

I don't want to I'm kind of giving it

away it had something to do with some

Quantum realities but it does actually

explain some things that are really good

sometimes you can watch a popular

culture show or television show or

podcast and it's about one thing but

you're also learning about something

else so any show that you've uh watched

or any podcast that you read about you

know different realities and timelines

you're also touching quantum physics now

in this show dark they talk about

schoener's cat you might have heard of

this before shoener cat and this is a

concept that's important in quantum

physics that explains why Quant Quantum

Computing is so much more powerful than

the Computing that we have right now

it's just difficult to contain which is

why we don't have it um it's it's

difficult to

actually sort of hold and and control

it's this power that it's it's hard to

hard to wrap our hands around it and so

this is a cubit as a artificial

intelligence image but let's get into

stringer's cat if you've heard of this

before okay so this is a really

interesting concept and it explains a

little bit it's also quite a morbid way

of looking at this idea that different

states of reality can occur at the same

time but it is what it is tro ER and

Einstein got together and had this

conversation and stroer flushed it out

um in more

detail summatively the concept is in any

state you can have multiple

possibilities but

because we can't see into those

possibilities it's hard to understand

that they could exist that's the concept

of quantum physics so shoener posited an

experiment didn't didn't I don't think

he actually did the experiment because

it would be be very sad is involves the

death of a cat and in this the concept

is and this is the picture from Sergeant

J cat you put a cat in a box cat in the

Box this cat is in the

box and there's a flask of poison that

is in the box with the cat the cat will

die once this flask uh Falls or cracks

open there is is a mechanism to release

the poison inside the box that is going

to be released through the decay of

radioactive isotopes the Decay as the

Isotopes Decay will cause as you seen

this picture the little Hammer to hit

the flask and kill the cat now you might

be saying what does this have to do with

Quantum Computing well what's happening

is for the Observer we cannot see Inside

the Box the Isotopes as they're breaking

down are this is the sort of the

metaphor for Quantum

realities at any state since we don't

know if the cat is alive or not unless

we reveal the box the cat is both to us

the cat is both alive and not alive it's

only when we open the box that we see if

the cat if the Poison's been released or

not and this is a concept called

superposition the the concept that in in

a in a moment all these realities could

be a possibility the reality that we

experience is the one that we

see and this is used as a metaphor and

again somewhat of a morbid and terrible

metaphor because this P poor cat which

is again a theoretical cat um is being

used to explain this this idea of

superpositions and Quantum

realities so what do this have to with

Quantum Computing I I really love this

stuff I just I think this is really cool

now this is where it gets crazy okay I'm

not here to explain this chart but I I

will try to explain it with strojan RIS

cat so the concept

here is that if you have some sort of

device that allows there to be multiple

things that exist at once then you have

more than just two possibilities right

either yes or no it happens or it

doesn't you have all these things that

can happen um that create another option

for

processing another ability to um quickly

look at information and this is again

very very like sort of high level layman

terms a Quantum physicist be like wait a

minute he's not using the the

terminology I want us to get a starter

than this and so in singer's cat you

have two possibilities the cat is alive

or dead right and that's the way we

would look at it open the box cat is

dead cat is alive if you're coming into

this LinkedIn live halfway

you know you're going to be a little bit

shocked about this cat that may have

died or not but it's stringer's cat look

it up but in shent cat in in the

experiment where we don't know both

States exists at once it creates this

called superos another option that

allows more possibilities to exist which

allows things to happen quicker in terms

of decisions options Alternatives and

the ability to process information so a

traditional computer is uses binary code

right ones and zeros flips on ones and

zeros extremely quickly now and they're

going getting quicker and quicker but it

has to go through ones and zeros to go

through an analysis an algorithm of of

problem solving and it does it very

quick in modern Computing but what if it

could do something do those things all

at the same time it didn't have to turn

on one and zero it's just everything is

happening all at once the computer sees

all the possibilities at once and

selects the one that makes sense for us

that would accelerate the ability for

programs computers to to solve

information that is so we the

traditional computer chip works on ones

and zeros the Cubit which I always think

about cubert that's totally different

from cubits cubert is a 1980s arcade

character as far as I know no I do know

that it creates now this is the

mathematical sort of equations but it

creates sort of the possibilities of all

all things and that allows there to be a

much much much I mean I can't even say

how many muches it's exponentially

higher in terms of processing and

there's several experiments that kind of

explain what this represents in terms of

how fast something uh goes in terms of

comparing modern Computing to the

Computing that we have and I'm trying to

just because there's so much information

here I'm just wanty to make sure I get

this correct in terms

of the um the speed at which this can

happen because basically what we're

seeing and there's a there's a problem

yeah see there's there's Cal I have

Caltech I have some notes Here calex

Richard Fineman remarked that nobody

understands quantum mechanics so this is

quantum mechanics that you're looking at

here um and so it is hard to explain but

coming to the end of this it is the idea

that basically this can start solving

problems s that are very difficult to

solve it can also do things that we're

currently doing a lot faster and I'm

trying to give you the the metaphor I

had it in my notes here but I had so

many notes that I might have misplaced

this particular note on yes I found it

kudos to me I appreciate this this is

called Grover's algorithm and it's a

it's a Quantum search and algorithm it's

the idea that could you find a in a

phone book of a 100 million

names

um in a phone book of 100 just 10,000

operations so the concept is can you

take all this

[Music]

um information that you have and find a

particular uh type of information in a

certain amount of moves almost like

chests and current Computing can only

can It can go very very fast but because

it has a turn on ones and zeros ones and

zeros it's limited in terms of speed it

just cannot operate as fast as it can so

there's a limit there's a speed limit to

how fast a um traditional Computing ones

and zeros um bits of data can solve

solve a problem now it's pretty fast but

we would we wouldn't necessarily notice

a difference but when it comes to

solving like problems in an exponential

way umec for artificial intelligence for

cryptography for the human genome for

for all kinds of things that we want

there to be just a amazingly fast way of

looking at all possibilities this is

definitely applicable in quantum physics

because we're looking at you know

unified field theor things like that but

there's more practical applications this

can accelerate many many things in which

computers maybe not to to our point but

in the background are a little bit slow

and the big one for us is that if

quantum Computing links to artificial

intelligence which I've talked about

which would exponentially increase the

speed of which artificial intelligence

is able to look at Big Data um and then

you combine that with AGI and we're in a

whole different world of technology now

what are the challenges with Quantum

Computing as I come to an end this is

just the first of many things I'll I'll

talk about with with Quantum Computing

so hopefully this is if you get take

away anything from this watch Star Trek

the Next Generation Quantum Leap and

dark especially parallels with

Lieutenant Warf one of the best episodes

uh but this concept of multiple things

happening at once really is the the core

that's what they call superposition of

quantum Computing the challenge why

don't we have Quantum Computing if it's

you know the concept is explainable

somewhat with fers cat well it takes a

lot of a very very specific physical

environment to get a cubit which does

exist in a super position like stro or's

cat to actually function talking about

absolute zero you got to you got to

bring these um electrons down to an a

state of absolute zeros for it gets into

like a lot of quantum physics which I

didn't want to get

into and so that's not as practical as

our modern Computing just works with a

like my laptop works with a little fan

that's that's cooling down my computer

it's not sending my computer down to

absolute zero which is the lowest

temperature you can get in the known

universe uh you have to have tremendous

amount of technological abilities to do

that so what's the practicality so

there's that piece the other piece in

the quantum state in the superposition

there's an un there's a and this is

where all these physicists have come

together because they're using quantum

physics to try to understand a know

Universe solve problems wasn't

necessarily attached to Computing until

in to the 80s is that there's a a lack

of stability in the quantum state and

that makes it hard sometimes to keep

everything in the physical environment

in the space that you need the Cubit to

work and sometimes doesn't allow the

Cubit to work in the way that we'd want

to to see all these options that are

sticking points but they are beginning

to be chipped away all right I think

that's good 20 minutes of quantum

Computing and I'm exhausted this is like

a workout I feel like I've been on a

treadmill at at at you know Max 10 speed

I'm exhausted but that's fun I you know

part of Technology with all the

technological changes that are happening

is that it's difficult to be an expert

like that as I mentioned that that um

professor said nobody really understands

quantum physics quantum mechanics um

it's very difficult uh even for the

experts to wrap their head around in a

way that they can explain and I'm not

here to be an expert I'm here to just

understand what is this going to be used

for and how can I understand this on a

bigger picture level so I can at least

have access to to understanding how it

works and that's what I like to do uh

when when it comes to um professional

development professional education is

take these sort of bigger Concepts break

it down anyway hopefully you found this

interesting I'm going to talk more about

this maybe I'll do another part two or

maybe I'll do another one of these and

find the way I get into it but thank you

for watching I believe we'll have

another LinkedIn live next week because

I'm on a roll and maybe it'll be about

Quantum Computing maybe it'll be about

artificial intelligence maybe it'll be

about the Pascal cakam trade which I'm

still not over anyway thanks for

watching everyone until next week take

[Music]

care

[Music]

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