The Longevity & Brain Benefits of Vigorous Exercise | Dr. Rhonda Patrick

FoundMyFitness
5 Dec 202360:28

Summary

TLDRThis fitness podcast explores the science behind incorporating vigorous exercise into one's lifestyle for enhancing longevity and brain function. It details how muscles act as chemical factories during intense activity, producing compounds that yield anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. Different training methodologies like high-intensity interval training and moderate steady state exercise are compared in terms of their metabolic adaptations and brain benefits. The host also explains how lactate generated from vigorous exercise uniquely impacts neurons and the blood-brain barrier. Short high-intensity 'exercise snacks' are proposed to break up sedentary behavior.

Takeaways

  • 😀 Vigorous exercise like HIIT is crucial for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and can reverse aging effects in the heart
  • 🧠 Vigorous exercise uniquely benefits the brain due to lactate production and signaling
  • ⚡ Short bursts of high-intensity 'exercise snacks' provide metabolic benefits
  • 🔥 Vigorous exercise potently stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis
  • 💪 HIIT rapidly enhances muscle glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity
  • 🩺 Vigorous exercise reduces mortality risk from cancer and other diseases
  • 🦵 Muscles act as 'mini biochemical labs' producing beneficial compounds during intense exercise
  • 😊 Vigorous exercise increases beneficial brain chemicals like BDNF and neurotransmitters
  • 💉 Lactate produced by muscles can cross the blood-brain barrier to signal adaptations
  • 🚴‍♀️ Any level of physical activity has benefits, but vigorous exercise takes it further

Q & A

  • What is the difference between zone 2 training and vigorous exercise?

    -Zone 2 training is moderate intensity aerobic exercise at around 70-80% max heart rate, where you can still talk comfortably. Vigorous exercise is higher intensity, usually over 85% max heart rate, causing rapid lactate accumulation and difficulty sustaining for more than a few minutes.

  • How does improving VO2 max lead to longevity benefits?

    -Higher VO2 max levels are associated with reduced risk of mortality and longer lifespan. Going from below normal to average VO2 max leads to a 2+ year increase in life expectancy. There seems to be no upper limit to the benefits within normal ranges.

  • How can vigorous exercise reverse aging effects in the heart?

    -A study found 2 years of vigorous exercise in 50 year olds reversed aging effects in their hearts by 20 years. By the end incorporating high intensity intervals, their hearts structurally resembled 30 year old hearts.

  • What are some of the unique benefits of HIIT for the brain?

    -The lactate produced signals the brain to increase BDNF levels which is crucial for neuron health and function. It also spares glucose to produce antioxidants and improves vascular function at the blood-brain barrier to prevent inflammation.

  • How does exercise improve insulin sensitivity and diabetes risk?

    -The metabolic stress of high intensity exercise upregulates glucose transporters like GLUT4, enhancing glucose uptake capacity. This improves insulin sensitivity and blood sugar regulation.

  • How does exercise compare to medications for heart disease risk?

    -The podcast notes low fitness has a mortality risk comparable to or greater than risks from smoking, heart disease or diabetes. In many cases exercise significantly reduces those risks beyond what medications can achieve.

  • What is mitochondrial biogenesis and how is it stimulated?

    -Mitochondrial biogenesis is the creation of new young mitochondria. Vigorous exercise like HIIT potently stimulates it by generating lactate which activates pathways that signal mitochondrial production.

  • What are some benefits of exercise snacks?

    -Short 1-10 minute bursts of high intensity exercise, or "exercise snacks", have benefits for metabolism, breaking up sedentary behavior, and cognitive function.

  • How might timing exercise snacks around meals specifically help?

    -Performing vigorous exercise shortly before or after meals enhances blood sugar control by increasing glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity, reducing demand on the pancreas.

  • What is VILPA and how might it improve health?

    -VILPA or Vigorous Intermittent Lifestyle Physical Activity refers to incorporating high intensity exertion into daily activities. Just 3-9 min of VILPA a day has been associated with significant mortality risk reduction.

Outlines

00:00

😀 Introducing the importance of vigorous exercise

The host introduces the podcast on vigorous exercise. She explains that vigorous exercise goes beyond moderate intensity to provide unique benefits for longevity, brain function, and cellular rejuvenation. Key points: enhances neurochemicals, initiates anti-cancer mechanisms, improves mental health.

05:01

😃 Defining vigorous exercise and lactate threshold

The host defines vigorous exercise in relation to lactate threshold and zone 2 training. Vigorous exercise surpasses lactate threshold, making it challenging to hold a conversation. It includes high intensity intervals with significant lactate accumulation.

10:01

😊 Vigorous exercise improves cardiorespiratory fitness

Studies show vigorous exercise significantly improves cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 max), reducing mortality risk. Even going from unfit to low normal VO2 max extends life expectancy. No apparent upper limit within normal life expectancy.

15:03

🤩 Vigorous exercise reverses heart aging

Two years of vigorous exercise reversed aging of 50 year old hearts by 20 years. Protocol: gradually increased to 5-6 hours per week, much of it vigorous intensity like 4x4 interval training.

20:04

😮 Vigorous exercise enhances metabolism

Vigorous exercise more efficiently improves glucose control, insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial biogenesis. Lactate acts as signaling molecule for adaptations. High intensity intervals rapidly increase glucose transporters.

25:06

🧠 Vigorous exercise benefits the brain

High intensity exercise enhances neuroprotection and cognition. Lactate crosses BBB, provides energetically favorable fuel for neurons, spares glucose for glutathione production, and acts signaling molecule for BDNF.

30:08

💪 Mitochondrial and muscle adaptations

Both HIIT and moderate exercise increase mitochondrial biogenesis and fat oxidation. HIIT more rapidly stimulates adaptations while moderate exercise requires greater volume. Incorporate both.

35:09

🏋️‍♀️ More mechanisms of vigorous exercise

Vigorous exercise increases release of anti-inflammatory myokines in dose dependent manner. Also enhances enzyme to reduce neurotoxic kynurenine. Breaks up sedentary behavior. Similar benefits from exercise snacks.

40:10

🚶‍♂️ Vigorous lifestyle physical activity

Vigorous intermittent lifestyle activity (VILA) like sprinting up stairs has similar mortality benefits to exercise snacks. Just 9 min/day of VILA reduces cardiovascular and cancer mortality by 40-50%.

45:11

🏃 Conclusion on vigorous exercise

In conclusion, incorporating vigorous intensity exercise provides a host of unique benefits spanning increased longevity to enhanced cellular rejuvenation and brain function.

Mindmap

Keywords

💡Vigorous exercise

Vigorous exercise represents a level of exertion that goes beyond the lactate threshold, where lactate begins to accumulate more rapidly in the muscles. It includes high-intensity interval training (HIIT). The video emphasizes how vigorous exercise uniquely improves cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic function, and brain health compared to moderate exercise.

💡VO2 max

VO2 max measures maximal oxygen uptake and reflects cardiorespiratory fitness. The video highlights research showing VO2 max is strongly associated with longevity - higher levels correlate to longer lifespan.

💡Lactate threshold

The point where the body produces lactate faster than it can clear it away. Going beyond this threshold is key to gaining benefits of vigorous exercise. Lactate acts as a signaling molecule for adaptations.

💡Mitochondrial biogenesis

The generation of new mitochondria. Vigorous exercise potently stimulates this, enhancing mitochondrial health and function.

💡Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)

A protein crucial for neuron health and function. The video explains vigorous exercise increases BDNF, mediated by lactate signaling.

💡Lactate shuttle

The process whereby lactate travels through circulation to tissues like the brain, heart, and liver to signal adaptations and be used for energy generation.

💡Glucose sparing

When lactate is used for energy in neurons instead of glucose, it spares glucose to be used for glutathione production - a powerful antioxidant.

💡Myokines

Signaling molecules released by muscles that exert systemic effects throughout the body. Vigorous exercise increases myokine release.

💡Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

Increased at the blood-brain barrier by lactate signaling during vigorous exercise. VEGF enhances blood vessel health and growth.

💡Exercise snacks

Short vigorous bursts of exercise incorporated throughout the day. Can enhance cognition, metabolism, and break up prolonged sitting.

Highlights

Vigorous exercise linked to longevity - higher VO2 max associated with longer lifespan.

Vigorous exercise reversed aging effects in hearts of 50-year-olds, making them look 30.

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) more efficiently improves insulin sensitivity than moderate exercise.

Vigorous exercise stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis - generating new, healthy mitochondria.

Lactate produced during vigorous exercise acts as signaling molecule, increasing BDNF in brain.

BDNF critical for cognitive function, memory, protecting against neurodegeneration.

Vigorous exercise increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at blood-brain barrier.

Breakdown of blood-brain barrier implicated in neuroinflammation and dementia.

Greater exercise intensity leads to increased release of anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer myokines.

Vigorous exercise helps clear kynurenine, reducing production of neurotoxin quinolinic acid.

Short bursts of vigorous exercise ("exercise snacks") beneficial for metabolism and cognition.

3-4 mins/day of vigorous physical activity linked to 25-30% lower mortality risk.

9+ mins/day vigorous activity associated with 50% lower cardiovascular mortality.

Vigorous exercise has unique benefits - focus on incorporating into training routines.

Companion guide on optimizing cognition and neuroprotection at bdnfprotocol.com.

Transcripts

play00:00

welcome to the F my fitness podcast I'm

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your host Rhonda Patrick today we're

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diving deep into the science and

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practicality of incorporating vigorous

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intensity exercise into our lives it's

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not just about living longer it's about

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enriching the quality of life at

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essentially every stage and also

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influencing brain function during

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vigorous exercise our muscles

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essentially become mini biochemical Labs

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synthesizing compounds like lactate and

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myocin these aren't just muscle bound

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they get into circulation travel to far

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off tissues and they signal to them and

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they have a variety of benefits

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including the synthesis of elements like

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brain dve neurotrophic factor or bdnf

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crucial for brain health and neuronal

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health they also potentially initiate

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anti-cancer mechanisms not only are

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muscles little chemical producing

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factories but they also act like sponges

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to soak up compounds that can be harmful

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to the brain improving mental health and

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reducing neurodegenerative disease risk

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we're going to dive deep into the realm

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of V V2 Max optimization V2 Max is not

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just about a measure of

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cardiorespiratory Fitness it's directly

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linked to longevity essentially the

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higher your V2 Max the longer you're

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likely to live and there doesn't seem to

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be an upper limit to the life extending

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benefits of enhanced cardiorespiratory

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Fitness at least within your genetic

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potential we'll get into the details of

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how to calibrate high-intensity efforts

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with Zone 2 training methodologies for

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improving BO2 Max with the spotlight on

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the Norwegian for by4 protocol and even

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touch on some straightforward tactics

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like assessing BO2 Max so the pragmatic

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test which is the 12-minute run test

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equally important we'll navigate through

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the processes of mitophagy and

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mitochondrial biogenesis these are

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cornerstones for cellular Rejuvenation

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essentially reversing the aging process

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on a cellular level there's a lot of

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questions to answer what is vigorous

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exercise what is high-intensity exercise

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what about Zone 2 training so let's

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start by covering what is is not

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vigorous exercise Zone 2 training is

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also sometimes known as aerobic Based

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training it primarily targets aerobic

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Energy Systems and can be sustained for

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longer durations we're talking an hour

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and more some experts Define this type

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of training to be around 70 to 80% of

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maximum heart rate um possibly lower for

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people that are unfit um it's also

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defined by the talk test so you should

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be able to talk Comfort comfortably but

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not sing so you should be a little

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breathy when you're talking but still

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able to talk

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comfortably zone two training involves

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exercising at a moderate intensity it's

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a steady state type of lactate threshold

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training lactate threshold refers to the

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point at which the body begins to

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produce lactate at a faster rate then it

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can clear it away so keep in mind

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there's a lot of individual variation in

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determining the lactate threshold

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because people can have different

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Baseline lactate levels for one which is

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typically around 0.9 to to 1 millimolar

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generally speaking um people also have

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different rates of lactate production

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and clearance and even at the same

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relative exercise intensity so for

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example trained athletes might have a

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higher lactate threshold in terms of

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both exercise intensity and lactate

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concentration compared to untrained

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individuals genetics also play a role

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there are many great podcasts out there

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covering Zone 2 training um including

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Peter AAS the drive with guest Dr Dr

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enigo

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sanon now let's talk about vigorous

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exercise so generally speaking vigorous

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exercise represents a level of exertion

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where exercise goes beyond the lactate

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threshold which means lactate begins to

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accumulate in the muscles more rapidly

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there are various intensities within

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vigorous exercise so level intensity

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referred to as the maximal steady state

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threshold sometimes called Zone 3 is

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above the lactate thr threshold and it's

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challenging to hold a conversation and

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it's difficult to maintain this level of

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exercise for longer than 20 to 30

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minutes this level of intensity is

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somewhere between 80 to 85% max heart

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rate however vigorous exercise also

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includes exercising at intensities

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higher than this so a higher intensity

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training where there's significant

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amount of lactate accumulation and

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you're close to your what's called

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anerobic threshold this is a level of

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intensity usually around 85 to 95% max

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heart rate and it's difficult to

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maintain for longer than a few minutes

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sometimes this type of training

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intensity is called zone four

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training then there's the All Out near

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maximal intensity and this is sometimes

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called zone five Training these are

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shorter intervals and it's generally

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hard to maintain this level level of

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intensity for um longer than 1 minute so

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when we're talking about high-intensity

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interval training it involves

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alternating between periods of

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high-intensity vigorous exercise and

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periods of lower intensity rest

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depending on the the high intensity

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interval training or hit for short

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protocol these can include intervals

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ranging from zone three to zone five

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followed by recovery periods the idea

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that high-intensity interval training is

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only Anor robic is a misconception while

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high-intensity interval training

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exercise does rely more heavily on Anor

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robic Energy Systems it still required

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significant aerobic metabolism so hit

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can improve both aerobic and anerobic

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fitness and it's my opinion that getting

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your heart rate to at least 80% max

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heart rate so that that being at least

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80 uh percent is a really good place to

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be if you are targeting brain benefits

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and we'll dive a lot into that in a

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minute but I want to start by talking

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about cardiorespiratory fitness health

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span and Longevity so V2 Max is a

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measure of maximal oxygen uptake which

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reflects an individual's ability to

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utilize oxygen during exercise it's

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considered one of the best indicators of

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cardiorespiratory Fitness and it's

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associated with improved healthspan

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increased lifespan higher

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cardiorespiratory levels as measured by

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V2 Max have been consistently leaked to

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A reduced risk of mortality and longer

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lifespan so in the podcast when I use

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the term V2 Max just keep in mind that

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it's a measurement of cardiorespiratory

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Fitness the greatest longevity benefit

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that comes from improving your V2 Max is

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from people starting from a below

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average V2 Max and moving anywhere above

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average so even going from a below

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normal V2 Max for your age group and

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gender to a low normal is associated

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with a 2.1y year increase in life

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expectancy bumping that up going from a

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below below normal to high normal V 2

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max is associated with a 2.9 year

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increase in life expectancy and going

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even further to the upper limit of

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normal is associated with 4.9 years so

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almost 5year increase in life expectancy

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on average each unit increase in bi2 Max

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so that's 1 milliliter per kilogram per

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minute is associated with a 45 day

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increase in life

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expectancy in another study involving

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only men for every 10 unit increase in

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V2 Max so this would be then 10 ms per

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kilogram per minute there was a 70 177%

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lower risk of death from cancer and a

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11% lower all cause mortality so dying

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from many different um Co non-accidental

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causes of uh death another study

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published in Jama in 2018 found that

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there was no apparent upper limit to the

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benefit of cardiorespiratory Fitness on

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mortality within normal ranges of human

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life expectancy of course um in fact the

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study reported that Elite performers

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these are people that performed in the

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top 2.3% on the fitness test had an 80%

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reduction in mortality risk compared to

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the lowest performers so they performed

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in the bottom 25% on the fitness test

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and if you compare the elite performers

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to the high performers so these folks

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did really well but they were just under

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the elite they were they were between

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the top 25% and the top 2.3% the elite

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performers had a 20% mortality risk

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decline compared to even those High

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performers but going back to what I said

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earlier about just moving out of that

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low fitness group will give huge

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advantages to on life expectancy so

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people in the low fitness group had a

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fivefold higher risk of death than the

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elite performers but what is also so

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interesting is that the risk of dying

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due to low Fitness was similar or even B

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bigger than risks associated with having

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heart disease smoking or diabetes so

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being fitter is really good for your

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health at every level of fitness and

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there's always room for improvement so

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the question is well how can we improve

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our BO2 Max um lots of different

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training protocols Zone 2 training for

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example high-intensity interval training

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you know vigorous intensity exercise all

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improve cardiorespiratory Fitness and

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can increase V2 Max um

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hit has been shown to significantly

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improve E2 Max even with shorter

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training durations this is because hit

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recruits both aerobic and Anor robic

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Energy Systems and increases the

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intensity of the workout resulting in um

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greater greater cardiovascular stress

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and then adaptations um but this is

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important there are individuals who

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engage in more moderate intensity you

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know steady state zone 2 training that

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do not experience significant

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improvements in V2 Max in fact research

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has shown that approximately 40% of

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people do not see a measurable increase

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in their V2 Max even after engaging in

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guideline-based moderate intensity

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exercise which is about 2.5 hours of uh

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of this type of exercise per week for

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several months but when these what are

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called non-responders Incorporated more

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vigorous intensity exercise such as

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high-intensity interval training they do

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start to see improvements in V2 Max so

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this suggests that adding higher

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intensity exercise to an exercise

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routine can help eliminate that

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non-response and also can lead to

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Greater benefits in cardiorespiratory

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Fitness the reason for non-response um

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to moderate intensity exercise it's not

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completely understood but um the

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addition of vigorous intensity exercise

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is important for overall improvements in

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BO2 Max and engaging in more vigorous

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exercise seems to Prov provide a

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stronger stimulus for physiological

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adaptations that lead to increased

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cardiorespiratory Fitness so again I

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think these findings do really sort of

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highlight the importance of

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incorporating vigorous intensity

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exercise particularly incorporating

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maybe uh high intensity interval

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training into a training routine and

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obviously for individuals who are time

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pressed and can't dedicate several hours

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per week to doing a more type zone two

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type of training including shorter

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sessions of higher intensity exercise

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can still have significant improvements

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in BO2 Max and overall health uh so you

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might be wondering you know how much

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time do I dedicate to my more vigorous

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type of exercise versus a more moderate

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intensity Zone 2 type of training and I

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really think that answer depends on a

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lot of factors your individual goals um

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what you enjoy doing most what you're

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going to do the most I mean all those

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things are important because at the end

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of the day uh establishing a habit

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having an exercise routine that you're

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going to consistently do is what is most

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important uh for endurance athletes I

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mean the answer is easy right you're

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already dedicating several hours a week

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to doing more zone two training and

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about 20% of that training is dedicated

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to to Shorter higher intensity workouts

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more vigorous intensity workouts and

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this is commonly known as the 8020 rule

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but um remember this is this is people

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that are doing extensive amounts of

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training anywhere between 10 to 30 hours

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a week week um it's I think it's a

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common misconception to apply that 020

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rule to like any committed exerciser and

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any casual exerciser who are doing well

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under less than 10 hours a week as you

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think about um someone who is a

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committed exerciser maybe you work out 3

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to 5 days a week how much of that time

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should be spent doing vigorous intensity

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exercise I would say for VO2 max and

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other adaptations we're going to discuss

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including the brain um about half of

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that exercise training time I think

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should be spent in vigorous doing a

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vigorous exercise so again you want to

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be uh 80 at least 80% of your max heart

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rate or or more uh obviously there's

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resistance training to to incorporate as

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well into any training program um

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there's casual exercisers so people that

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work out maybe two to three times a week

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uh they should probably spend more than

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half of their time doing more vigorous

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intensity exercise I think this this

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ensures you're pushing your limits and

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you know making sure that you're getting

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adaptations Fitness gains in a shorter

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period of

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time there are a variety of V2 Max

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training protocols so for people that

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are looking for that more vigorous

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exercise using you know using

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high-intensity enal training to improve

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their V2 Max um the key here is longer

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intervals so incorporating longer

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intervals such as 2 three four maybe

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even five minutes at the highest

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workload you can sustain for that time

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and then performing four intervals with

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rest and Recovery in between um each of

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those so this protocol may require maybe

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a 20 minute time commitment but it can

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lead to significant improvements in V2

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Max there's a few examples of a V2 Max

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training um Dr Martin gabala who was a

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recent podcast guest gave a variety of

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of examples of this so there's 3 to five

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minute repeats at the highest

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sustainable intensity we talked about

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doing um those 3 to 5 minute intervals

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that you can maintain and then you rest

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and recover and repeat those intervals

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uh for for a total of 20 minutes I think

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a a popular variation of this is called

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the Norwegian 4x4 interval training

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protocol so the intervals are 4 minutes

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long and you're aiming for about 85 to

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95% of your max heart rate or the

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maximum level of intensity you can

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maintain for the entire four minutes um

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these interval these intervals can be

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brutal so the recovery period is 3

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minutes long and the intensity is

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significantly lower like light light

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exercise more like a Zone one training

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exercise you want to allow yourself

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recovery time the clearance of lactate

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you want your heart rate to come down

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significantly so that you can prepare

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for the next 4minute interval so these

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four minute intervals are repeated um

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four times and again in between each

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interval is a 3 minute recovery so

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that's the the nuran 4x4 interval

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training um there's another type of BO2

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Max training protocol it's the one

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minute on one minute off

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protocol this is where you perform one

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minute of intervals at the highest

play15:44

intensity you can do for 1 minute and

play15:47

then it's followed by a one minute

play15:48

recovery period and then you repeat this

play15:51

interval pattern 10 um or maybe five

play15:55

times for about 25 minutes or so and and

play15:58

this protocol also is effective at

play16:01

improving BO2 Max and it does provide a

play16:03

lot of flexibility in terms of time

play16:05

commitment um it it's also not as uh you

play16:08

know grueling in terms of like doing a

play16:10

4-minute interval versus a one minute

play16:12

interval one minute intervals are a

play16:13

little bit um you know less intense and

play16:17

and less

play16:19

painful obviously it's important that

play16:21

you know these Protocols are sort of

play16:23

templates they vary a lot based on

play16:26

individual fitness goals um you know

play16:29

there's other protocols out there that

play16:30

can improve V2 Max the key is like a

play16:33

longer interval longer than like a

play16:35

Tabata like a 20 second interval and so

play16:38

you know probably about at least 1

play16:40

minute at the highest sustainable

play16:41

intensity that you can do I think the

play16:43

Norwegian 4x4 protocols probably one of

play16:46

the best out there um one of the best

play16:48

hit protocols out there for improving V2

play16:50

Max so how do you measure V2 Max um

play16:54

without equipment found in an exercise

play16:57

physiology uh physi ology lab um it's

play17:00

obviously challenging there's several

play17:02

sort of tests that have been developed

play17:05

and verified for getting an an an

play17:09

estimate of your V2 Max so they don't

play17:11

directly measure maximum oxygen uptake

play17:14

but they predict your V2 Max based on

play17:17

the relationship between your exercise

play17:19

intensity and your oxygen consumption um

play17:23

they're sort of useful in determining

play17:25

whether or not you're improving V2 max

play17:27

if you're testing a a type of training

play17:29

protocol so the there's a couple of

play17:32

really like I said validated tests that

play17:34

have been validated in scientific

play17:35

literature um that can that can sort of

play17:37

be done probably one of the best ones is

play17:40

the 12 minute run or sometimes called

play17:43

walk test depending on your level of

play17:45

Fitness um it's often also referred to

play17:48

as the Cooper test and um it involves

play17:51

having the participant run or jog as far

play17:55

as possible in 12 minutes so you're

play17:57

supposed to paste yourself evenly you

play17:59

don't want to start too fast and the

play18:00

test should be conducted on a flat

play18:02

surface so like a track field is the

play18:04

best you don't want to have Hills and

play18:06

stuff because it's it's about you know

play18:08

the the maximum amount of distance you

play18:10

can cover in 12 minutes and if you have

play18:12

Hills and stuff that's going to less

play18:14

that it's going to be more challenging

play18:16

and um you know the distance won't be

play18:18

quite as far so uh you'll need a fitness

play18:20

device something that Rec can record

play18:22

your your distance an Apple Watch or you

play18:24

know Fitbit or something and depending

play18:27

on your Fitness level you can walk or

play18:29

you can run um or a combination so the

play18:32

distance covered within that 12-minute

play18:34

period serves as the primary metric for

play18:37

evaluating BO2 Max which is then

play18:39

estimated using a formula so it's its

play18:42

distance in meters minus

play18:44

54.9 and then divided by 44.7 3 and you

play18:48

can look this formula up just look up

play18:50

the Cooper test to find the formulas um

play18:54

online again um you know there's there's

play18:57

some other validated test but I think

play18:58

that's probably the one of the best

play19:00

better ones out there you'll need a

play19:02

device like an Apple Watch uh or some

play19:04

some sort of other device that can

play19:06

measure your distance but there's also

play19:09

the some of these devices and wearables

play19:10

do estimate V2 Max during exercise using

play19:14

heart rate and your motion data um you

play19:17

know for best results you have to make

play19:19

sure all your personal information's in

play19:20

there like your age and your weight and

play19:22

gender you know all that stuff but

play19:24

that's another you know possibility I

play19:26

would say the 12-minute run or walk test

play19:28

is a more it's a better way to do it

play19:30

particularly if you're trying to do

play19:32

something like the 4x4 nor Norwegian um

play19:35

hit protocol to to measure V2 Max

play19:37

improvements you want to see if what

play19:40

you're doing is improving your your

play19:42

estimated V2 Max so I think that the

play19:45

12-minute run test is a is a good way to

play19:47

do that I want to sort of change gears

play19:50

for a minute and talk about um you know

play19:54

something that I also think is pivotal

play19:56

and it's it's a unique role for vigorous

play19:59

exercise in playing a role in enhancing

play20:01

Health span and it has to do with

play20:03

changes in heart structure so as we age

play20:07

the heart undergo specific inevitable

play20:11

changes right related to the a aging

play20:13

process so it tends to get smaller uh it

play20:15

gets stiffer and this can impact the

play20:19

heart's efficiency uh potentially

play20:21

reducing our Exercise capacity elevating

play20:23

our risk for cardiac issues um but there

play20:26

can be exercise intervention

play20:28

like consistent aerobic exercise with a

play20:31

high proportion of it being vigorous

play20:34

intensity that can actually combat some

play20:36

of these effects so there was a landmark

play20:38

study published from Ben lavine's group

play20:41

and it was an intervention study and it

play20:43

showed that two years of vigorous

play20:46

exercise in 50y olds was able to reverse

play20:49

the aging of their hearts by as much as

play20:52

20 years effectively making their hearts

play20:55

look more like a 30-year-old which in my

play20:58

opinion is simply astonishing you're

play21:00

taking a 50-year-old heart and making it

play21:02

look like a 30-year-old heart now the

play21:05

exercise protocol used in this this

play21:08

particular study uh it was a protocol

play21:11

that that gradually increased the

play21:13

exercise intensity and also frequency so

play21:16

again I mentioned it was a two-year

play21:17

intervention by the end of six the first

play21:20

six months participants were exercising

play21:22

about five to six hours a week with a

play21:25

large portion of training being in that

play21:28

maximal steady state um intensity

play21:32

exercise like which I referred to

play21:33

earlier in the podcast it's it's often

play21:36

sometimes called Zone 3 it is a type of

play21:39

vigorous intensity exercise um they also

play21:43

were incorporating more High higher

play21:46

intensity exercise so they also did the

play21:49

Norwegian 4x4 V2 training V2 Max

play21:52

training protocol I just referred to and

play21:54

they did that once a week and um I just

play21:57

think it's like I said it's simply

play21:59

astonishing that you know you take these

play22:01

50 year olds and after 2 years of a more

play22:03

vigorous intensity exercise um training

play22:07

protocol it essentially reversed the

play22:10

effects of Aging in the heart okay so

play22:12

let's shift gears yet again and talk a

play22:15

little bit about metabolic adaptations

play22:18

and again this is where I think vigorous

play22:21

exercise really shines um particularly

play22:24

high-intensity interval training it

play22:27

improves glucose control insulin

play22:30

sensitivity um more more efficiently and

play22:33

more potently than even continuous you

play22:35

know moderate intensity workouts and uh

play22:39

you know I do think that of course both

play22:41

exercise type you know training

play22:43

protocols can enhance muscle adaptations

play22:46

and glucose regulation um hit really

play22:49

seems to to do it quicker and um again

play22:53

more robustly whereas moderate intensity

play22:55

exercise kind of Demands longer sessions

play22:57

for comparable outcomes so research has

play23:00

found that high-intensity inal training

play23:02

can enhance the muscle ability to take

play23:03

up glucose and improve glucose transport

play23:06

capacity so during high-intensity

play23:09

interal training and during vigorous

play23:11

exercise there's a a a demand a rapid

play23:15

you know a demand for Rapid energy

play23:18

production and so the body relies both

play23:20

on aerobic so oxygen using and anerobic

play23:24

non oxygen using metabolic pathways to

play23:27

generate this energy the anerobic

play23:29

pathway can lead to the production of

play23:32

lactate especially when the intensity of

play23:34

exercise surpasses the point at which

play23:37

the oxygen intake can keep up with the

play23:39

energy demand um and and so this is

play23:42

sometimes often referred to as the

play23:43

lactate threshold as we talked about for

play23:46

a long time lactate was considered

play23:49

primarily as a waste product

play23:50

contributing to muscle fatigue and uh

play23:53

you know this has of course been

play23:55

completely revers Recent research Arch

play23:58

has you know totally changed this

play24:00

understanding um lactate generated in

play24:02

muscle tissue is transported not only

play24:05

back into muscle and into mitochondria

play24:07

to be used as an energy source but it

play24:10

also when it starts to accumulate at

play24:12

higher levels travels systemically into

play24:16

circulation and gets transported to

play24:18

other tissues like the heart the liver

play24:20

the brain where it's used for energy um

play24:22

it's also used as a signaling molecule

play24:24

so this is known as the lactate shuttle

play24:27

and was pioneered by Dr George Brooks

play24:30

who has really changed the field and um

play24:32

he also happened to be my second podcast

play24:34

guest ever on on this podcast um anyways

play24:38

lactate you know it it it I mentioned it

play24:41

acts as a signaling molecule in those

play24:43

tissues as well and you can think of a

play24:45

signaling molecule as a chemical

play24:47

messenger that is sending a message to

play24:50

other cells one of those messages is the

play24:53

upregulation of gluc glucose transport

play24:56

capacity so so vigorous intensity

play24:59

exercise high intensity interval

play25:01

training when when that lactate

play25:03

production accumulates it stimulates the

play25:06

expression and activity of glucose

play25:08

Transporters known on the muscle known

play25:10

as glute 4 and this is on the muscle

play25:13

cell membrane and so that lactate acts

play25:16

as a signaling molecule to increase the

play25:18

transport of glucose

play25:21

Transporters on on the muscle cells and

play25:23

this then allows for more efficient

play25:26

uptake of glucose into the um from the

play25:29

bloodstream into the muscle even at rest

play25:33

and so consequently then insulin

play25:35

sensitivity is also improved and blood

play25:37

glucose levels are better regulated

play25:40

there's been several studies that have

play25:42

demonstrated that hit can improve

play25:43

glucose uptake enhance insulin

play25:45

sensitivity and decrease the risk of

play25:47

developing type 2 diabetes this may be

play25:50

due to the intense metabolic stress

play25:52

created during hit which leads to

play25:54

Greater activation of glucose transport

play25:57

great glucose Transporters um and improv

play26:00

glucose clearance um so as I mentioned

play26:05

both high-intensity Neal training

play26:06

continuous moderate intensity exercise

play26:09

can also be effective at improving

play26:10

glucose transport capacity in the

play26:12

muscles um hit promotes rapid increases

play26:16

in glucose Transporters allowing for

play26:18

that efficient glucose uptake and

play26:20

utilization whereas continuous moderate

play26:22

intensity exercise although it's less

play26:25

intense still does also enhance gluc

play26:27

transport capacity um it improves the

play26:30

overall Fitness of muscles as well so

play26:32

you know again it's just a longer

play26:33

duration of exercise time to to get

play26:36

there and um with the with the lactate

play26:40

generation that happens with you know

play26:42

high-intensity high-intensity exercise

play26:45

you're getting that immediate signal

play26:47

from lactate to increase the gluc glute

play26:49

for Transporters and so it's a it's a

play26:51

very rapid and robust adaptation that

play26:54

happens there's other metabolic ad

play26:57

adaptation so um just just kind of

play27:00

talking about mitochondria mitochondria

play27:03

are very important and they play a lot

play27:05

of roles in the body but one of the most

play27:07

important ones is the production of

play27:09

energy in the form of ATP this is

play27:11

obviously very important for muscles but

play27:14

also hugely important for the brain um

play27:17

the heart the liver pretty much every

play27:19

organ athletes are very interested in

play27:21

mitochondrial health because they want

play27:22

their muscles to efficiently and

play27:25

effectively produce energy when they're

play27:26

training but mitochondria are also very

play27:29

important in the context of Aging as we

play27:31

age our mitochondria become less

play27:33

efficient at producing energy and this

play27:35

poses a problem for physical activity

play27:38

but also just for normal functioning of

play27:40

our organs now that problem of

play27:42

mitochondria not producing enough energy

play27:45

can actually be overcome by increasing

play27:48

the mitochondrial volume or what's

play27:50

called mitochondrial biogenesis an

play27:54

exercise particularly vigorous exercise

play27:57

is one of the best ways to do that so

play28:00

one of the most powerful indicators of

play28:03

healthy mitochondria is the ability to

play28:06

generate new healthy young mitochondria

play28:10

called mitochondrial biogenesis vigorous

play28:12

intensity exercise like high-intensity

play28:15

high-intensity interval training I

play28:17

mentioned um it's one of the most

play28:19

powerful stimulators of mitochondrial

play28:21

biogenesis this has to do with the

play28:24

metabolic stress that is induced from

play28:26

vigorous inity exercise the lactate

play28:29

itself again lactate is a signaling

play28:32

molecule when you're producing greater

play28:33

amounts of lactate that actually

play28:36

activates one of the major Pathways that

play28:39

regulates mitochondrial biogenesis it's

play28:42

called pgc1 Alpha and again lactates

play28:47

acting as a signal to produce more of

play28:51

that pgc1 Alpha so when we perform

play28:54

vigorous intensity exercise such as hit

play28:57

that lactate generated from the muscles

play29:00

it's shuttled into the mitochondria

play29:02

because exercise increases the um the

play29:05

number of mitochondria per cell again

play29:07

mitochondrial biogenesis and the more

play29:10

lactate that's able then to be used as

play29:12

um energy or to produce energy and this

play29:15

is important to know if you're wanting

play29:16

to understand the bigger picture of

play29:18

where metabolism and and lactate

play29:20

utilization fit into you know Human

play29:23

Performance but it's also important to

play29:26

realize that athletes put around

play29:28

anywhere between like I said 10 20 30

play29:31

hours of training in a week um if

play29:33

they're endurance athletes and usually

play29:35

about 80% of that training is in you

play29:37

know the the the Moder intensity Zone to

play29:41

training world with the remaining 20%

play29:43

being vigorous intensity exercise like

play29:45

hit if they're if they're putting in 20

play29:47

hours a week of of you know the of

play29:49

moderate intensity training then they're

play29:51

doing anywhere you know they're doing

play29:53

you know four anywhere between four to

play29:55

six hours a week of vigorous exercise

play29:58

like hit so just the portion of their

play30:00

vigorous exercise alone they are doing

play30:02

is more than what committed exercisers

play30:05

are doing so the question is what's the

play30:07

best training protocol for a non-athlete

play30:10

someone that's perhaps a committed

play30:11

exerciser who is interested in Health

play30:14

and

play30:14

Longevity uh again both high-intensity

play30:17

interval training Zone 2 training also

play30:19

moderate intensity training can increase

play30:21

mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal

play30:23

muscle hit does it more rapidly um it's

play30:27

a more potent stimulus again with with

play30:29

lactate being a signaling molecule um on

play30:32

the other hand zone two training you

play30:34

know for which is you know doing a more

play30:37

um moderate intensity exercise that's

play30:40

sustained for a longer duration does

play30:42

lead to an increase in mitochondrial

play30:45

content I think the key here is the

play30:47

total volume of training so higher

play30:50

intensity higher intensity exercise is a

play30:53

smaller volume and it can result in more

play30:55

rapid larger increases in mitochondrial

play30:58

content while doing a more moderate

play31:01

intensity Zone 2 training also does the

play31:04

same thing um but it just requires

play31:06

larger exercise volume or duration your

play31:09

muscle's ability to use fat as a fuel is

play31:14

also closely tied to how many active

play31:17

mitochondria you have so in other words

play31:20

increasing mitochondrial content also

play31:23

determines the ability of muscles to be

play31:25

able to oxidize fat

play31:27

both high intensity anable training so

play31:29

vigorous exercise and Zone 2 training

play31:32

increase the capacity for fat oxidation

play31:35

by increasing mitochondrial content Now

play31:38

by enhancing um the growth of new

play31:42

mitochondria you're increasing the

play31:44

activity of key enzymes involved in fat

play31:46

metabolism so one of those is the

play31:48

carnitine um palet transferase enzyme or

play31:52

the CPT enzyme both types of exercise

play31:55

training moderate and also vigorous

play31:57

intensity exercise do um increase the

play32:01

CPT enzyme capacity as well and you know

play32:06

obviously that is directly related to

play32:07

the utilization of fat as a fuel source

play32:10

so I think the bottom line here is that

play32:12

you know mitochondrial biogenesis

play32:14

increasing mitochondrial volume is key

play32:18

for mitochondrial Health it's key for

play32:22

improving fat oxidation as well and both

play32:26

high-intensity interval training and a

play32:28

more moderate Zone 2 type of training

play32:31

will get you increases in mitochondrial

play32:34

volume so another way that exercise

play32:37

improves mitochondrial health is through

play32:39

a process known as mitophagy or

play32:42

mitophagy as some people call it so

play32:45

mitophagy is a type of autophagy which

play32:48

involves the selective removal of

play32:51

damaged or dysfunctional mitochondria

play32:53

from the cell or within the cell um this

play32:57

this process really helps maintain

play32:59

mitochondrial qual quality control and

play33:02

overall cellular health so when you put

play33:05

stress on mitochondria through exercise

play33:07

the body triggers you know the

play33:09

elimination of damaged mitochondria and

play33:11

the replacement of those mitochondria

play33:14

with new healthy ones through

play33:16

mitochondrial biogenesis there's not a

play33:19

lot of direct human research on the

play33:23

effects of different training types of

play33:26

EX of of different training types of um

play33:28

different exercise training on mitophagy

play33:31

but I know of at least one human study

play33:33

that has found particularly vigorous

play33:36

intensity aerobic exercise enhances

play33:40

markers of

play33:41

mitophagy it's likely that both both

play33:44

vigorous exercise high-intensity

play33:46

interval training and more moderate

play33:49

exercise training can stimulate this

play33:51

process with hit just getting you faster

play33:53

and you know the moderate intensity Zone

play33:55

to requiring a larger training B volume

play33:57

but overall you know both hit Zone 2 can

play34:01

promote skeletal muscle adaptations

play34:03

including mitochondrial biogenesis fat

play34:05

oxidation mitophagy this is a repeating

play34:08

theme of this podcast and also on the

play34:11

one that I did with Dr Martin gabala on

play34:13

high-intensity interval training I think

play34:14

the choice between the two really

play34:15

depends again on individual goals

play34:18

preferences the amount of time available

play34:20

for training and just what you love to

play34:22

do hit offers that time efficiency um it

play34:26

it potentially has the the ability to

play34:28

have rapid improvements and adaptations

play34:30

in mitochondrial content while Moder

play34:33

intensity Zone 2 training can yield

play34:35

similar adaptations with a larger volume

play34:38

of Moder intensity exercise you know

play34:41

sustained for a longer duration but I do

play34:43

think that it's important to probably

play34:45

try to incorporate both types of

play34:47

exercise training for a more

play34:49

well-rounded way to kind of cover all

play34:51

your bases um and for those that are

play34:54

committed exercisers if you're putting

play34:55

in let's say anywhere between two to 5

play34:58

hours of training a week it's it's my

play35:01

opinion that you know you you should

play35:04

probably be doing a lot of a lot of that

play35:07

training or half of that training should

play35:09

be vigorous intensity exercise not only

play35:12

because the voax improvements we spoke

play35:14

about earlier but also because of brain

play35:18

benefits so let's talk about the brain

play35:21

exercise intensity like high-intensity

play35:23

interval training has been shown to have

play35:25

unique benefits for brain health um

play35:29

obviously all types of exercise are

play35:31

beneficial for the brain but high

play35:34

intensity exercise may have additional

play35:37

neuroprotective and cognitive benefits

play35:39

and one of the mechanisms that's thought

play35:41

to underly this is you know the the

play35:43

unique effects of you know vigorous

play35:47

intensity exercise or hit on the brain

play35:49

because of the lactate production so

play35:52

during high-intensity exercise lactate

play35:54

is produced in large amounts as we've

play35:56

talked about about um largely as a

play35:58

byproduct of the metabolic stress you're

play36:00

you're kind of pushing that Anor robic

play36:02

threshold and when you produce lactate

play36:06

it's getting into circulation and it can

play36:09

cross the bloodb brain barrier there are

play36:11

lactate Transporters MCT Transporters on

play36:14

the bloodb brain barrier and it can you

play36:17

know cross the blood brain barrier and

play36:18

get into the brain where it then acts as

play36:20

a signal and it triggers a variety of

play36:23

beneficial adaptations so um let's talk

play36:26

about some of the

play36:27

first you know lactate can be used by

play36:30

neurons as a preferential energy source

play36:33

so it's it's actually energetically

play36:36

favorable it takes less energy for

play36:39

mitochondria to to mitochondria to use

play36:43

lactate versus

play36:45

glucose so um in fact neurons are are

play36:49

used to using lactate because asites in

play36:53

the brain which are a supporting cell

play36:55

for neurons they're mostly glycolytic

play36:58

that means they're mostly using glucose

play36:59

as energy they're not using mitochondria

play37:02

and they're producing lactate as a

play37:04

byproduct so asites are turning out tons

play37:07

of lactate in the brain and that lactate

play37:10

is be being taken up you know by neurons

play37:14

through the the MCT Transporters and

play37:16

used as energy so um there's actually

play37:20

even been studies showing that the brain

play37:23

is working harder during exercise much

play37:26

like the muscles are working harder your

play37:28

heart's working harder and it's been

play37:30

shown that lactate actually fuels the

play37:33

brain during exercise so that that

play37:36

lactate that's being translate um that's

play37:38

being transferred into circulation is

play37:40

being just soaked up by the brain and

play37:42

it's fueling the brain brain activity

play37:44

during exercise now another benefit of

play37:47

of neurons in the brain using lactate as

play37:50

an energy source instead of

play37:53

glucose is it spares glucose it's

play37:56

freeing up glucose to be used by another

play37:59

biochemical pathway um known as the

play38:03

pentos phosphate pathway and this

play38:05

pathway uses glucose to make precursors

play38:09

called

play38:10

nadph that's needed for the production

play38:13

of one of the most powerful antioxidant

play38:15

systems in the brain called

play38:17

glutathione so the less glucose is being

play38:20

taken up by neurons to be used as energy

play38:24

the more it can be spared to be used in

play38:26

this pentos phosphate Pathway to make

play38:28

glutathione and this has really

play38:30

important

play38:31

relevance not only for just you know

play38:33

normal brain aging right I mean if

play38:35

you're if you're able to use more of the

play38:38

lactate as energy and spare glucose and

play38:40

make more glutathione in the brain

play38:42

generally speaking that's going to be

play38:43

more beneficial for just normal brain

play38:45

aging but it has special relevance also

play38:48

for traumatic brain injury TBI because

play38:51

you know that when there's that you know

play38:54

bolus of damage that's that's been been

play38:56

done that that traumatic um brain injury

play39:00

then glutathione is needed the most but

play39:03

you're also needing you know glucose for

play39:05

neurons as well um and so and and it's

play39:09

and it's it's it's also awful because

play39:11

you know asites which are usually making

play39:13

lactate for the neurons also become

play39:15

damaged during a TBI and so there's a

play39:17

lactate shortage for neurons um and

play39:20

there's been a few studies showing that

play39:21

a infusion um PE when there's TBI uh

play39:26

patients with TBI that get infused with

play39:29

sodium lactate this actually improves

play39:32

TBI outcomes and this is you know

play39:34

measured by the the glass cow scores so

play39:37

um you know generally speaking I think

play39:39

that this glucose sparing effect also

play39:42

you know there's some evidence again

play39:44

obviously direct evidence with TBI

play39:45

outcomes that's been shown to have you

play39:47

know improvements in TBI TBI outcomes

play39:49

I'm proposing a mechanism here with

play39:51

glucose sparing um with respect to the

play39:54

with respect to lactate um lactate again

play39:57

also stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis

play39:59

animal Studies have shown this in the

play40:00

brain and neurons as well um we don't

play40:03

have direct human evidence of that but

play40:06

um there's no reason to think that

play40:07

wouldn't be a conserved mechanism so I

play40:10

think you know we covered the importance

play40:13

of brain lactate energetically speaking

play40:16

it's energetically favorable right

play40:18

neuron neurons preferentially they

play40:20

prefer to use it um we talked about the

play40:22

glucose sparing but let's go back to the

play40:25

signaling molecule as ECT as we talked

play40:27

about earlier in the muscles we talked

play40:28

about it increasing glute for

play40:30

Transporters um it's also a signaling

play40:32

molecule in the brain um you know it's

play40:35

it's acting as a messenger it's a way

play40:37

for the muscles to communicate with the

play40:39

brain directly and um when neurons in

play40:43

the brain are using more lactate they're

play40:47

they're releasing uh a variety of

play40:49

neurotransmitters they release more

play40:51

norepinephrine for example so to help

play40:53

the brain working better to to have more

play40:55

Focus and attention um it also signals

play41:00

to the brain to make more brain Drive

play41:03

neurotrophic factor

play41:05

bdnf and I mean this is a very powerful

play41:08

neurotrophic Factor it promotes the

play41:11

survival the growth and the function of

play41:13

neurons it plays a crucial role in

play41:17

neuroplasticity so this is the the

play41:19

ability of the brain to adapt form new

play41:23

connections higher levels of bdnf have

play41:25

been linked to improved cognitive

play41:27

function enhanced memory protection

play41:29

against neurod degenerative diseases

play41:31

like Alzheimer's disease um if you want

play41:33

to put this in Sensational words uh to

play41:37

explain it bdnf is the youth Elixir for

play41:41

the brain and exercising muscles produce

play41:44

lactate to help you bathe your brain in

play41:46

it so um that's a little a sort of

play41:50

simplistic and more Sensational way of

play41:52

thinking about it but essentially that's

play41:54

what's happening when the lactate

play41:56

increasing bdnf in the brain um lactate

play41:59

is also a messenger not only in the

play42:02

brain but at the bloodb brain barrier um

play42:05

you know this is made up of tiny blood

play42:07

vessels we covered this in a podcast

play42:09

with Dr Axel

play42:10

Montaine so lactate signals to increase

play42:14

another growth factor at the bloodb

play42:16

brain barrier called

play42:17

vegf and um this is vascular endothelial

play42:21

growth factor this helps grow new tiny

play42:25

but

play42:26

vessels it's called This is called

play42:28

angiogenesis the growth of new tiny

play42:30

blood vessels it helps them grow at the

play42:32

bloodb brain barrier it also helps

play42:34

repair damaged blood vessels I mean

play42:36

these are these are these are things

play42:38

that are you know important for

play42:41

preventing the breakdown of the bloodb

play42:42

brain barrier so essentially VF is

play42:45

increasing the vascular

play42:47

density and breakdown of the bloodb

play42:50

brain barrier is a major cause of blood

play42:52

of brain aging um it's a major cause of

play42:55

of neuroinf inflammation it contributes

play42:57

to the Vicious Cycle of

play42:59

neuroinflammation and there's also

play43:01

emerging evidence that now suggests

play43:04

breakdown of the blood brain barrier is

play43:06

one of the earliest signs of

play43:08

dementia so again um another reason why

play43:13

vigorous intensity exercise through that

play43:15

just generation of a lot of lactate then

play43:19

getting to the brain getting to the

play43:20

bloodb brain barrier has unique benefits

play43:24

on overall brain brain

play43:27

health uh it's important to know I guess

play43:30

this is you know there there are

play43:32

benefits to high-intensity exercise on

play43:35

the brain that are not just exclusive to

play43:37

lactate right so there's increased blood

play43:40

flow uh there's the improved

play43:42

cardiovascular fitness the release of

play43:44

neurotransmitters the release of

play43:46

endorphins you know all all of these

play43:48

things contribute to the positive

play43:50

effects of physical activity on the

play43:52

brain but vigorous intensity exercise I

play43:56

do think has some unique and very robust

play44:00

effects on brain health because of that

play44:01

lactate and so I really wanted to kind

play44:03

of dive deep into that so that you guys

play44:05

understand that you know your muscles

play44:06

are being pushed to work extra hard and

play44:09

this is then now causing adaptations in

play44:11

the brain that are pretty

play44:14

substantial in addition to lactate

play44:17

exercise intensity also affects the

play44:19

muscles ability to produce other

play44:22

compounds known as myocin so these are

play44:25

molecules released from muscle cells

play44:27

that signal to nonmuscle tissues that

play44:31

the body is physically active you know

play44:34

so again it's similar to what we've been

play44:36

talking about with lactate myocin have

play44:39

anti-inflammatory they have anti-cancer

play44:42

effects they also participate in

play44:44

metabolic pathways involved in fat

play44:46

oxidation glucose uptake um they play a

play44:49

role in you know in in again cancer

play44:52

biology as well so generally speaking

play44:56

the greater the intensity of exercise

play44:59

the greater the myokine release again

play45:02

it's one of those you're putting stress

play45:04

on the muscles and the the muscles are

play45:07

then forced to adapt and one of the

play45:10

adaptations is releasing

play45:13

myocin again um duration also matters so

play45:16

the harder and the longer the muscles

play45:18

work the greater the myokine release um

play45:22

some myokines are a little more

play45:23

sensitive to exercise intensity

play45:26

so is 6 was uh is one probably one of

play45:29

the most uh well-known myocin it was

play45:32

initially thought to be a

play45:34

pro-inflammatory cyto kind so a cyto

play45:37

kind that plays a role in instigate

play45:39

instigating inflammation um when it is

play45:42

produced from muscle it acts as a mocine

play45:46

so it it it does play a role in

play45:48

inflammation but um when it's produced

play45:50

from muscle during exercise it's not it

play45:53

it's it's signaling to um other tissues

play45:57

to have an anti-inflammatory response

play46:00

and so um you'll often find a even

play46:03

larger production of anti-inflammatory

play46:06

cyto such as is 10 in response to is 6

play46:10

produced during

play46:12

exercise irisin is another myokine it's

play46:15

involved in cancer protection it's

play46:17

involved in bone health

play46:19

metabolism um and and

play46:21

more and then there's also another

play46:23

well-known myokine known as onco Statin

play46:26

M and um that myokine sort of plays a

play46:29

little more prominent role um in you

play46:32

know anti-an cancer effects the key here

play46:36

is I think that exerc um exercise

play46:38

intensity and or duration are really

play46:42

what increase myokine levels so you're

play46:45

going for a two or three mile run

play46:48

probably crank it up a little more

play46:50

intense right you want to be at you know

play46:52

at least 85% your max heart rate um so

play46:55

so you're not going to be really talking

play46:57

during that run are you going on an

play47:00

8mile run maybe duration is on your side

play47:02

right and intensity can go down a notch

play47:04

since we were just talking about cancer

play47:06

it keep in mind that any level of

play47:09

physical activity is better than none so

play47:11

a study investigating physical activity

play47:13

in breast cancer and colar rectal cancer

play47:15

found women who were more physically

play47:17

active before being diagnosed with

play47:19

breast cancer had about a 23% reduced

play47:22

risk of dying from any Cause And A 23%

play47:24

reduced risk of dying from breast cancer

play47:26

compared to those who were less active

play47:29

those who were more active before being

play47:31

diagnosed with colar rectal cancer had a

play47:33

26% reduced risk of dying from any cause

play47:36

and about a 25% reduced risk of dying

play47:38

from colar rectal cancer so being active

play47:41

after diagnosis had had even stronger

play47:44

benefits for both cancer types so these

play47:47

women had a 48% reduced risk of dying

play47:50

from any cause and a 28% reduced risk of

play47:53

dying from breast cancer compared to to

play47:55

those that were less active after

play47:57

diagnosis and the individuals with color

play48:00

rectal cancer had a 42% reduced risk of

play48:03

dying from any cause and a 39% reduced

play48:06

risk of dying from colar rectal cancer

play48:09

again after being diagnosed with with

play48:12

the cancer so I do want to talk a little

play48:14

bit about you know there's a lot of

play48:17

mechanisms by which exercise can you

play48:20

know dampen cancer metastasis can um

play48:24

improve cancer outcomes

play48:26

um but there's one specific mechanism

play48:28

that involves tumor cells escaping from

play48:31

the original tumor site and then

play48:33

traveling into circulation to other

play48:36

locations other organs and you know

play48:38

other tissues they sort of take Camp

play48:40

there they grow and divide and they form

play48:41

a secondary tumor those cancer cells are

play48:45

called circulating tumor cells and that

play48:47

process I just described is often called

play48:50

cancer metastasis right um those

play48:53

circulating tumor cells are in

play48:56

circulation for a period of time and

play48:59

these circulating tumor cells are very

play49:02

sensitive to the shearing forces of

play49:05

blood flow so when you exercise and

play49:08

blood flow increases those circulating

play49:11

tumor cells they actually they actually

play49:14

die and um this happens in a dose

play49:17

dependent manner so the more intense the

play49:21

exercise um the more sensitive they are

play49:24

to to sell death duration is also a key

play49:27

right so I mean you're talking about

play49:29

increasing the sheer forces both

play49:31

intensity and duration are key here um

play49:33

and and so it's really just a matter of

play49:36

getting that blood flow up um intensity

play49:39

uh duration and um that is been shown to

play49:43

kill circulating tumor cells um and

play49:46

again this is associated with more

play49:48

positive outcomes with respect to cancer

play49:51

uh

play49:53

survival not only um we talked a lot

play49:56

about you know muscles being little

play49:58

chemical producing factories they're

play50:00

producing chemicals like lactate they're

play50:01

producing

play50:03

myocin but they also act like sponges to

play50:06

soak up compounds that can be harmful to

play50:09

the brain so skeletal muscle has the

play50:12

ability to take up a compound known as

play50:14

curine and convert it into chric acid

play50:18

which is a non-toxic metabolite um and

play50:22

it does this by increasing an enzyme on

play50:25

the muscle called curine aminot

play50:28

transferase so this essentially reduces

play50:30

the amount of curine available to then

play50:33

be transformed into other harmful

play50:35

metabolites such as quinolinic acid in

play50:38

the brain so quinolinic acid is a

play50:40

neurotoxin that plays a role in

play50:42

depression it plays a role in

play50:44

schizophrenia and neurodegenerative

play50:45

disease um and so this is just one other

play50:50

mechanism by which you know exercise

play50:53

also seems to improve Mental Health

play50:56

um it's also you know another way that

play50:58

again exercise intensity is important

play51:00

here that is what is increasing that you

play51:03

know that enzyme that curine

play51:05

aminotransferase on the muscle cells to

play51:08

then transport curine into the muscle so

play51:11

that is not um converted into the

play51:14

quinolinic acid um so just another

play51:17

another mechanism that I kind of wanted

play51:19

to point point out um because again

play51:22

intensity plays a role here with those

play51:25

aminotransferase Transporters soaking up

play51:27

more of that Kine I want to shift gears

play51:30

and talk about short bursts of

play51:31

high-intensity interval training so this

play51:33

is sometimes called exercise snacks

play51:36

exercise snacks are short bursts of

play51:38

vigorous intensity exercise that are

play51:40

Incorporated throughout the day and they

play51:43

it can have numerous benefits on

play51:45

metabolism overall health um these

play51:48

exercise snacks can be as simple as

play51:50

doing some vigorous jumping jacks or

play51:52

vigorous air squats or high knees or

play51:54

burpee and they can be done in just a

play51:56

few minutes there might be some distinct

play52:00

metabolic benefits to exercise snacks

play52:02

particularly when timed around meals so

play52:05

performing these these you know short

play52:08

bursts of exercise before or so directly

play52:12

before or after a meal is particularly

play52:15

effective in controlling blood sugar

play52:17

levels and you know this this sort sort

play52:20

of thing can lead to a rapid uptake of

play52:23

glucose into the muscles again having to

play52:25

do with increasing those glute four

play52:27

Transporters um it helps to lower blood

play52:29

glucose levels more efficiently um than

play52:32

staying sedentary post meals so timing

play52:35

exercise snacks around meals um really

play52:38

can help the ba the body handle sugar

play52:41

influx better and it helps you know

play52:43

utilize glucose more effectively and

play52:45

reduces the demand on the pancreas to

play52:48

produce insulin so it's um particularly

play52:50

beneficial for people with uh both type

play52:54

one and type two to diabetes in addition

play52:57

to the direct metabolic benefits

play52:59

exercise snacks can also combat

play53:01

sedentary Behavior so many individuals

play53:05

even those who engage in regular

play53:07

exercise still spend a significant

play53:09

portion of their day sitting at their

play53:12

desk working being sedentary sedentary

play53:16

Behavior has been shown to be a modest

play53:19

independent risk factor for certain

play53:22

types of cancer um and it can also

play53:24

increase the risk of premature death

play53:26

even among Physically Active individuals

play53:29

so by incorporating exercise snacks

play53:32

individuals can kind of break up those

play53:34

prolonged periods of sedentary behavior

play53:38

and potentially further you know reduce

play53:41

their um cancer risk and and just have a

play53:44

a a variety of Bel health benefits so

play53:47

exercise snacks also can enhance

play53:49

cognitive function it's directly

play53:51

increasing blood flow to the brain um

play53:54

you know again that that can also just

play53:56

have an immediate mood enhancement which

play53:58

affects motivation there's not a lot of

play54:00

direct evidence on exercise snacks in

play54:02

the brain um but again again of course

play54:05

methodologies can differ anywhere

play54:07

between one minute to 10 minutes um but