The Fascinating Evolution of Automotive Wiring

New Mind
24 Feb 202425:09

Summary

TLDRThe script traces the evolution of automotive electrical systems over time, from the basic wiring in early 20th century cars like the Model T to the sophisticated digital systems in modern vehicles. It examines key innovations that advanced wiring and connectivity in cars, including improved insulation materials, crimped terminals, aviation-inspired connectors, multiplexed communications networks, and standards for emerging electric vehicle systems. The complex wiring harnesses and networks in today’s cars grew out of incremental enhancements in materials, manufacturing, and design over decades of automotive development.

Takeaways

  • 📈 The Ford Model T's electrical system evolved over time from a minimalist starterless design to one incorporating more sophisticated components
  • 🔌 Early automotive electrical systems used cloth-covered copper wiring and screw/solder terminals which were unreliable
  • 💡 Bullet connectors were an early improvement, allowing quick connect/disconnect of wiring without soldering or screws
  • 📏 Crimping terminals became popular in the 1930s as it was faster, more reliable and provided strain relief
  • 🔌 Aviation influenced automotive electricals - adopting circular connectors and higher quality insulated wiring
  • 🌡 New insulation materials like PVC were introduced to replace less flexible rubber and handle higher temps
  • ⚙️ More vehicle electronics in the 50s-70s required multi-pin plastic connectors and dedicated engine wiring harnesses
  • 🤝 Serial bus protocols over the 80s-90s enabled advanced diagnostics, multiplexing signals over fewer wires
  • 🔋 Hybrid and electric vehicles have required new standards for high voltage systems, connectors and charging
  • 📈 Small iterative changes over decades transformed basic automotive electrical systems into today's sophisticated networks

Q & A

  • What was the first mass-produced electrical system incorporated into the Model T Ford?

    -The first mass-produced electrical system in the Model T Ford consisted of basic wiring that integrated a magneto powered ignition system, lighting, a horn, a generator and battery combination that was used to primarily drive the starter motor.

  • How did early automotive electrical systems exhibit a trajectory towards growing sophistication and complexity?

    -Early automotive electrical systems grew more sophisticated and complex by incorporating components like starters, lighting, horns, generators and batteries over time. The Model T Ford launched with a minimalist configuration and gradually added more components found in modern vehicles.

  • What were some drawbacks of the cloth-covered wiring used in early automobiles?

    -Drawbacks of early cloth-covered wiring included deterioration over time leading to shorts and failures, less protection against abrasion and chemicals compared to modern wiring, bulky wire terminals prone to failure from vibration and heat, and susceptibility to contamination and corrosion.

  • How did crimping terminals help improve automotive wiring reliability?

    -Crimping terminals provided a quicker, more reliable method of connecting wires that avoided heat application, ensured consistent and uniform connections, retained flexibility near connections preventing fatigue cracks, and captured insulation providing strain relief.

  • When were multi-pin connectors first adopted in automotive wiring systems?

    -Multi-pin connectors were first adopted in vehicle wiring systems in the 1950s, when vehicles began incorporating more electrical components like radios, power windows and climate control systems, requiring complex wiring harnesses.

  • How did the use of computers and networking benefit automotive electrical systems?

    -The use of computers and networking allowed functions like diagnostics and communication between electronic modules. Multiplexing networks let multiple data channels share one physical channel efficiently.

  • What are some key differences between networks used for critical versus non-critical vehicle systems?

    -Critical systems like ABS and engine management require robust, low latency networks like CAN bus, while non-critical systems can use simpler, lower speed networks. Infotainment uses high speed networks to handle data rates.

  • How have standards facilitated development of electric vehicle technology?

    -EV standards define communication protocols, connectors, charging infrastructure to enable interaction between EVs and charging stations. Safety standards mitigate risks with high voltage systems.

  • What are some examples of gradual changes that advanced automotive electrical systems over time?

    -Changes like new connector and insulation materials, crimping and strain relief techniques, adoption of electronics and multiplexing led to today's sophisticated digital vehicle systems.

  • How can understanding measurement and analysis concepts help with learning about technology?

    -Grasping measurement and analysis builds intuition around quantifying information in meaningful ways, which helps unlock complex technical concepts across many fields.

Outlines

00:00

🤩 Early Automotive Electrical Systems

This paragraph provides an overview of early automotive electrical systems, focusing on the Ford Model T. It discusses the evolution of the Model T's electrical system over its production span, highlighting the use of cloth-covered copper wiring, stranded wire for flexibility, soldered ring terminals, and rubber insulation. Key aspects like system reliability challenges and trajectory towards complexity are noted.

05:02

⚡ Improving Durability and Reliability

This paragraph explores the improvements made to enhance durability and reliability of automotive wiring from the 1930s onwards. Key developments include bullet connectors for reduced failure points, crimped terminals for better connections, spacer terminals for tight spaces, and aircraft-inspired circular connectors for complex systems.

10:02

🔌 Revolutionary Plastic Insulation

This paragraph examines the revolutionary introduction of plastic wire insulation in the 1920s/30s and its superiority over previous materials. PVC is highlighted as an early popular choice, offering flexibility in manufacturing and broad temperature/voltage range, though some drawbacks like degradation and toxic fumes when burned are noted.

15:04

🤝 Multi-Pin Connectors for Complexity

This paragraph discusses the need for multi-pin connectors as vehicles incorporated more complex electrical systems like radios, wipers etc. The use of inexpensive plastic connectors with nylon shells, spade terminals and locking clasps is outlined, though their durability limitations compared to aviation connectors are acknowledged.

20:07

📡 Digital Networks and Multiplexing

This paragraph focuses on the proliferation of digital networks and multiplexing from the 1980s onwards to manage growing electronics complexity. CAN bus is highlighted as an industry standard for inter-module communication. The need for specialized wiring to handle digital signals is also examined.

Mindmap

Keywords

💡Electrical system

The electrical system refers to the wiring, lighting, ignition, and other electrical components in a vehicle. The video chronicles the evolution of automotive electrical systems from simple beginnings in the Ford Model T to increasingly complex and sophisticated systems in modern vehicles. Key innovations included stranded wiring, bullet connectors, crimping, and advanced insulation materials.

💡Multiplexing

Multiplexing refers to allowing multiple signals or streams of data to be transmitted over a single channel. As vehicles incorporated more complex digital systems, multiplexing was implemented to facilitate communication between electronic controllers and reduce wiring complexity. Standards like CAN bus enabled robust, conflict-free multi-master communication.

💡Insulation

Insulating vehicle wiring is essential for safety and performance. The video traces advances in insulation from early cloth and rubber to modern polymers like PVC and cross-linked polyethylene. Key properties include temperature/abrasion resistance, flexibility, and dialectric constants.

💡Connectors

Connectors are used to join wiring and components. From soldered terminals to threaded aviation connectors to weatherproof automotive multi-pin connectors, improving ease of assembly/disconnection and reliability were driving goals.

💡Diagnostics

Onboard diagnostics let technicians access control systems to identify issues. Multiplexing networks (CAN bus) enabled this but required expensive tools and training.

💡Electric vehicles

New standards are emerging around EV components like high-voltage cables/wiring and charging infrastructure as vehicles shift to electric power.

💡Stranded wire

Stranded wire (small wires bundled) was more durable for auto use compared to solid core wire. It resisted vibration better thanks to increased flexibility.

💡Crimping

Crimping terminals to wires ensured reliable, quick connections without soldering's drawbacks. It improved vibration resistance and provided strain relief.

💡Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

PVC plastic used as wire insulation beginning in WWII due to rubber shortages. Resisted wide temperature range and abrasion but had environmental issues.

💡Controller Area Network (CAN bus)

Robust serial protocol introduced in 1986 to enable multiple vehicle systems to communicate without conflict. Became industry standard for inter-module digital communication.

Highlights

Early automobiles used cloth-covered copper wiring which was flexible but prone to deterioration

Stranded wire was developed in the 1800s for applications needing flexibility and durability against vibration

Bullet connectors were an early connector system without fasteners, improving durability through vibration resistance

Crimping revolutionized connections by ensuring consistent, durable metal-to-metal contact without solder's rigidity

Circular connectors were adopted from aviation for their durability, ease of assembly, and replaceability

PVC wiring insulation was introduced in WWII, offering abrasion and chemical resistance at a low cost

Multi-pin nylon connectors enabled integration of new electronics like radios and climate control systems

Higher circuit complexity required dedicated signal wires and shielding against electromagnetic interference

Controller Area Network (CAN) bus improved reliability and noise immunity for digital communications

Multiplexing networks allowed multiple controllers to communicate, enabling telematics and diagnostics

High-bandwidth automotive networks use Ethernet or FlexRay as ADAS systems handle video data

Connecting EVs have led to new standards for communications, charging infrastructure, and safety

Despite shifts to electrification, wiring remains critical as improvements enable complex digital systems

Frequent small changes over decades established foundations for today's sophisticated vehicle electronics

Learning by problem solving, not just watching, is key - Brilliant courses unlock this through interactivity

Transcripts

play00:00

this episode is brought to you by

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brilliant this diagram represents the

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first mass-produced electrical system in

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human history it was incorporated into

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the most common variants of the Model T

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and it consists of basic wiring that

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integrated a Magneto powered ignition

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system lighting and the horn and a

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generator and Battery combination that

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was used to primarily Drive the starter

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motor over its 19-year production span

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with 15 million units produced the Ford

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Model T's electrical system had evolved

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drastically initially launched with a

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starter lless minimalist configuration

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it would gradually incorporate

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components that can be found in the

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electrical systems of modern vehicles

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even from its early Beginnings

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Automotive electrical systems exhibited

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a clear trajectory towards growing

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sophistication and

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complexity early automobiles including

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the Ford Model T used cloth covered wire

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this type of wire consists of a copper

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conductor insulated with a layer of

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cloth material the cloth insulation was

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typically made from cotton or a similar

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fibrous material and impregnated with a

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varnish or rubber to provide additional

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protection against moisture and

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wear while solid copper conductor wiring

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was commonly used in the vast majority

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of applications at the time Automotive

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wiring was made of stranded wire

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consisting of multiple small wires

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stranded wire was developed in the late

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1800s to address the limitations of

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solid wire particularly in applications

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requiring flexibility and durability

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especially when exposed to vibration

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cloth covered wiring impregnated with

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rubber specifically proved to be ideal

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for automotive use as its flexibility

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made it easier to route through confined

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and complex spaces these wiring

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assemblies were typically connected to

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components via a termination that

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consisted of a a solder on ring terminal

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that was fixed by screws with longer

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spans of wiring being secured with metal

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clips and even Stables this technique

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was used even on high voltage ignition

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wires fully rubber covered wire was also

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developed as a more durable insulation

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option and while it was Superior in

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flexibility and insulative properties

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over cloth-based variations rubber

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insulation became brittle and cracked

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over time especially when exposed to

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heat heat light and certain

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chemicals early automobiles were

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notoriously unreliable and their

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electrical systems greatly contributed

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to this over time cloth insulation

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deteriorated especially if exposed to

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moisture in oils leading to a risk of

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shorts and electrical failures cloth

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insulation also offered less protection

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against abrasion and chemical exposure

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when compared to Modern insulation the

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wine terminals used were bulky and

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suffered from failure due to fatigue

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caused by vibration and Heat heat

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cycling this also caused Threaded

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Fasteners to back out breaking

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electrical connections these Junction

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points were also susceptible to

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contamination and corrosion further

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diminishing

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reliability in the 1930s bullet

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terminals were one of the first Fastener

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less connector systems to appear on

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vehicles bullet terminals consists of a

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male component the bullet and a

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corresponding female component the

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socket or sleeve into which the bullet

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fits snugly these connectors are usually

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made from soft Metals such as brass or

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tin-plated brass which are chosen for

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their good electrical conductivity and

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resistance to corrosion the exterior of

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the connector often features an

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insulation sleeve made of vinyl or

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rubber to protect the

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connection a variant of the concept

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called Spade terminals would also be

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developed that permitted a connection to

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be used in tighter spaces and harsher

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physical

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environments spay terminals consist of a

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flat spade-shaped male connector that

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places the mechanical connection to the

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outer ends of the terminal via a

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barrel-shaped spring light clamp on the

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female end while the center of the

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terminal forms the primary electrical

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connection many versions also

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incorporate a third Center locking

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mechanism along the terminal's body for

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a more positive connection particularly

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in high vibration environments the

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lowprofile nature of space terminals

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allow them to be made into tighter reach

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variations such as 90° flag style Spade

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terminals the 1930s also saw the

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introduction of crimping to terminate

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wire terminals crimping involves

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mechanically compressing a terminal

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around a wire to ensure a metal toetal

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contact it offers a quicker and more

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reliable method for making connections

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especially in production environments

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where speed and repeatability are

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essential it avoids the application of

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heat and when done correctly provides

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excellent mechanical strength and a high

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degree of resistance to vibration and

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pulling forces crimping also ensures a

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consistent and uniform connection

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reducing the risk of cold joints or

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other soldering defects that can lead to

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failures it also retains the full

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flexibility of the wire near the

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connection Point unlike soldering which

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can create rigid sections that may be

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prone to fatigue and cracking under

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stress crimp terminated connections not

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only made vehicle wiring far more

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serviceable and cheaper to manufacture

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but also dramatically increased

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reliability through the inherent strain

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relief they provided by capturing a

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wire's insulation within a crimp the

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stresses and strains placed on the cable

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are prevented from being transferred to

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the conductor dramatically reducing

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freeing breaking or pulling out from the

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terminal additionally strain relief is

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also provided by any sleeves used on the

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terminal

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Junction towards the end of the decade

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aircraft electrical systems were growing

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so complex that single Junction

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connections were becoming impractical

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especially for military use electrical

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Aviation components sometimes required a

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dozen or more connections all of which

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had to be easily disconnected for

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service while remaining securely

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connected in harsh environments this was

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especially critical in combat

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situations in the US aircraft

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manufacturers would ultimately adopt a

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solution that was traced back to the

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early days of the motion piture industry

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back in the 1920s Studio lighting

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required a connector that could not be

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accidentally disengaged this need was

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met in 1925 with the introduction of a

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receptacle and a plug with a mechanical

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locking ring called the M series it was

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developed by Robert Canon the founder of

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Canon electric by the late 1920s

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Paramount Studios developed its own

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pseries connector for a new sound camera

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that utilized a latched locking device

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while Fox Studios would introduce its

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own threaded coupling ring

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variant from these Concepts the threaded

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ring circular connector design was found

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to be best suited for Aviation and would

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be first used on the Douglas dc1

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aircraft circular or cylindrical

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connectors consist of two mating halves

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or shell Each of which contains multiple

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pins or socket configurations internal

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insulating spacers initially made of

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hard rubber support the contacts in

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their proper orientation the plug end is

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attached to a wiring bundle while the

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receptacle is often mounted in a fixed

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position such as on a panel or case the

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plug consists of a barrel a coupling nut

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and a backend termination the barrel

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fits inside the receptacle shell and the

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coupling nut holds the mated pair

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together alignment of pins and sockets

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must conform to rigid tolerances during

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the manufacturing process in order to

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avoid bending or breaking during

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separation or closure of the two halves

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wires are attached to the individual

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contact pins by crimping or soldering

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and are held in place by either an

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interference lock a contact lock or an

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insert lock the locking mechanism

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determines how the pins are inserted the

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shells were usually fabricated from

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aluminum or steel and were extremely

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rugged and were also polarized to

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prevent mismatching and to make assembly

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easier the success of these connectors

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led to the United States Department of

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Defense establishing military

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specifications to create a supply of

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standardized components with defined

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housing dimensions and pin layouts

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specifically designed and tested to

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withstand the reliability performance

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and environmental requirements of the

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application for which they were intended

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the first of these military

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specifications was the a 9534 which

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appeared on November 1st 1934 the

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specification was superseded 2 years

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later

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bywc 591 which was was used with various

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revisions for the duration of World War

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II the growing importance of air power

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during the war led to the establishment

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of the US Air Force as a separate branch

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of the military with a whole new set of

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connector requirements in 1949 Mill c515

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superseded AWC 591 and became the first

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coordinated connector specification

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approved for use by all three services

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Army Navy and Air Force consider the

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progenitor of all connector

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specifications milc 515 covered a broad

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range of pin contact sizes and voltages

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up to 3,000 volt

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AC the development and introduction of

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synthetic polymers in the 1920s and

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1930s marked a turning point for the

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electrical industry as a whole Plastics

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were found to offer Superior

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characteristics over impregnated cloth

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and even full rubber wire insulation it

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was far more resistant to abrasion

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electrical and thermal degradation and

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unlike previous installations could be

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chemically adapted to a broader range of

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applications by altering its physical

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properties one of the first and most

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popular Plastics to be used for wire

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insulation was polyvinyl chloride during

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World War II PVC was introduced as a

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replacement insulation for rubber as the

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US lost access to 90% of the world's

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natural rubber Supply its thermoplastic

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properties made it very easy to

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manufacture as it became more plastic

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when heated and rigid again on cooling

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it also allowed for the mixing in of

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stabilizers plasticizers flame

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retardants and lubricants to achieve a

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broad range of properties PVC

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instulation was designed to be resistant

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to a wide range of temperatures from -4

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de C to 125° C as well as to abrasion

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moisture and Atmospheric agents

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including UV rays it can also safely

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insulate up to 1,000

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volts PVC insulation however when

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exposed to hydrocarbons and chlorinated

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solvents can degrade or become brittle

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leading to insulation failures it can

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also become rigid and less flexible at

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lower temperatures and when exposed to

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fire PVC insulation produces thick black

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smoke hydrochloric acid gas and it emits

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dioxins which are highly toxic and can

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cause health issues and environmental

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damage during the 1950s Vehicles began

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incorporating radios climate control

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systems power windows wipers more

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lighting and various other amenities

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transforming vehicle wiring into its own

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complex subassembly known as a chassis

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wiring harness much like with Aviation

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multi-pin connectors were needed but the

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bulky and costly connectors used in

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aviation were not viable for a consumer

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product the solution came in the form of

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the industry adopting its own range of

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less costly plastic based multi-pin

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connectors made from nylon these early

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connectors were injection molded into a

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pair of of rectangular mating shells

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that housed Spade terminals that were

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set in place by a contact lock on the

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terminal body the shells were locked

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together by a combination of friction

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and a simple clasp that was captured in

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an integrated aperture rubber boots were

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often used to protect the connection in

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exposed areas on a vehicle while these

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connectors were far less durable and

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were limited in terminal count when

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compared to their Aviation counterparts

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they were sufficient enough for

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automotive use at the time over the next

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two decades solid state Electronics

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started to appear in vehicle electrical

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systems initially within specialized

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function components such as voltage

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Regulators electronic fuel injection

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drivers wipers and lamp and wiper

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controls wiring harnesses were growing

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denser and far more signaling and

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sensing functionality became a part of

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this new era of vehicles chassis wiring

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harnesses were now designed using a

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broad range of wire cross-section areas

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insulation materials sheathing and

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connector types to specifically

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accommodate a section's application

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while balancing cost and

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reliability the mid 20th century also

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saw the introduction of new wire

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insulation materials based on propylene

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polyethylene tetraethylene

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hexafluoropropylene ethylene

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tetraethylene polyurethanes polyesters

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polyamides and synthetic rubbers that

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all offered varying degrees of better

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electrical characteristics greater

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resistance to temperature abrasion and

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hydrocarbons when compared to PVC with

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some even allowing for thinner

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insulation walls though these more

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advanced insulations were used only when

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needed due to

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cost ethylene Tetra flu ethylene wire in

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particular was adopted by Motorsports

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alongside milspec circular connectors

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due to its electrical properties

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chemical inertness and exceptional

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impact strength known as Tezel wire its

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thin but tough insulation allowed for

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less bulkier but extremely durable

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wiring harnesses that could withstand

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the extreme environments of

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racing in the 1970s stricter fuel

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efficiency regulations in the United

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States forced car manufacturers to

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improve engine efficiency and reduce

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emissions when combined with the

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exploration into the performance

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benefits of fuel injection by European

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manufacturers the progressive adoption

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of electronic engine management systems

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would occur over the next decade these

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changes had a dramatic impact on wiring

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complexity with electrical systems now

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incorporating dozens of sensors and

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control

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mechatronics from this multi-pin

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connectors were now capable of

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containing up to 100 connections with

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the pin and socket design becoming

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standard similar to Aviation connectors

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these use contacts made of precision

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stamped and folded thin sheets of of

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brass or copper Alloys that are formed

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into cylindrical pins along with a

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respective matching socket their mating

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shells are generally rectangular though

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more complex shapes are common with

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equally various forms of integrated

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keying for orientation pin and socket

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connectors tend to use a combination of

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contact locking and varying forms of

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insert locking such as wedge locks this

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was particularly important not just for

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Positive Locking and ease of harness

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assembly but also to distribute tension

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forces evenly across the connector

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body commonly made from either

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polyamides polybutylene theerapat ABS or

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nylon the Precision injected molded

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shells employ one or more locking

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mechanisms to secure the halves together

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ranging from clasps to external locking

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clips and even robust assembly Force

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limiting locking mechanisms for larger

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connectors much like their mspec

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counterparts silicone or viton seals and

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wire gaskets are also utilized to

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weatherproof both The Mating and wire

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termination end of the

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connector with the proliferation of

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digital engine management in the 1980s

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chassis wiring harnesses now had to

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contend with a new function the

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transmission of digital signals and

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highly susceptible analog sensor signals

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this becomes problematic with relatively

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inexpensive PVC insulations because of

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its higher dialectric constant

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dialectric constant indicates how

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readily a material polarizes in an

play16:34

electric field materials with a high

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dialectric constants store more energy

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but this can cause signal attenuation

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and Distortion at high frequencies

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additionally signal lines have to

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operate in the electrically noisy

play16:48

environments created by the ignition and

play16:50

charging system and must be able to

play16:52

handle cross talk from other Lines

play16:54

within dense wiring

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bundles to address address this wire

play16:59

insulation materials such as

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polyethylene and cross-link polyethylene

play17:04

are favored for their low dialectric

play17:06

constants offering minimal signal loss

play17:08

at high frequencies for highly sensitive

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signals such as in ABS sensors or nox

play17:14

sensors signal lines are sheathed often

play17:16

with grounded aluminum foil shielding to

play17:19

mitigate the effects of electromagnetic

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interference throughout the 1990s

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computerization became integrated with

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Automotive Electrical systems with

play17:29

network topology slowly being adopted by

play17:32

most

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manufacturers in this model electronic

play17:36

controllers were assigned to each

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vehicle system and between them

play17:40

multiplexing signal protocols allowed

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for multiple channels of data to be

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exchanged over a single physical

play17:47

channel the First multiplex systems used

play17:51

basic serial protocols derived from

play17:53

Industrial Systems such as rs232 rs485

play17:57

and rs s 422 these protocols rely on a

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predefined fixed bit rate and some

play18:03

connection management data to directly

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transmit a stream of bits the simplest

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form of this is known as single-ended

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communication where a bit is represented

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by a voltage level relative to ground

play18:17

while this only requires a single signal

play18:19

wire and is simple to implement its bit

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rate is limited due to noise

play18:25

susceptibility balanced serial

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communication improves proves this by

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using two signal wires that are often

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Twisted together one carries a positive

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signal and the other carries an inverted

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signal any noise induced on the

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transmission line affects both signals

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equally allowing the receiver to

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effectively cancel out the Noise by

play18:45

subtracting the inverted signal from the

play18:47

positive one this method improves noise

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immunity and enables reliable faster

play18:52

communication over longer distances when

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compared to single-ended serial

play18:57

communication in the the early 1980s

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various Automotive serial communication

play19:01

protocols emerged such as Kline line

play19:04

j1850 which used pulse width modulation

play19:07

and SE used by General Motors these

play19:10

protocols facilitated Diagnostics and

play19:13

intermodule communication but lacked

play19:15

speed and

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flexibility in 1986 controller area

play19:20

network bus protocol or can bus was

play19:22

released at the Society of Automotive

play19:24

Engineers conference in Detroit

play19:27

Michigan the developed by Bosch canbus

play19:29

is known as a multimaster serial bus as

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it permits multiple nodes to communicate

play19:34

with each other over the same channel

play19:36

robustly and without conflict canbus

play19:39

employs two wires that carry opposite

play19:41

bit States or a differential signal to

play19:44

easily filter out noise the

play19:46

specification also defines a messaging

play19:49

protocol that encapsulates interm module

play19:51

communication into frames with Advanced

play19:54

features such as prioritized message

play19:56

transmission and error detection by the

play19:59

mid1 1990s it would be adopted by the

play20:01

industry as the standard for in-vehicle

play20:03

digital Communications with the standard

play20:07

evolving over time to support higher

play20:09

data rates and larger payloads by the

play20:11

mid 2000s dozens of subsystems were now

play20:14

common on vehicles with vastly different

play20:17

requirements critical systems such as

play20:19

ABS airbags traction control and engine

play20:21

management require low latency robust

play20:24

links while basic chassis electrical

play20:26

systems can operate efficiently on low-p

play20:28

speeded simpler Communications

play20:30

infotainment systems in comparison

play20:32

require High data rates but are not

play20:35

critical because of this variability

play20:38

modern vehicles Now operate multiple

play20:40

networks with some even using fiber

play20:42

optics to facilitate High data rates and

play20:44

noise immunity a typical mid-2000s

play20:47

vehicle configuration for example would

play20:49

employ a can bus Network for critical

play20:51

systems a single-ended low-speed serial

play20:54

bus such as Lin for non-critical chassis

play20:57

electrical control and human interface

play21:00

and a fiber optic protocol such as most

play21:02

for transmitting digital audio data

play21:04

throughout an audio

play21:06

system vehicle service and Diagnostics

play21:08

has also benefited by the use of

play21:10

multiplexing networks by allowing the

play21:13

direct access to the control systems

play21:15

within a vehicle from a singular

play21:18

interface though this comes at the cost

play21:20

of expensive diagnostic tooling training

play21:23

and Reliance on manufacturers for

play21:25

proprietary

play21:27

Hardware as Advanced Driver assistance

play21:29

systems or Adas began to appear in

play21:31

vehicles high bandwidth links that are

play21:34

capable of handling video data added a

play21:36

new layer of vehicle networking two

play21:39

common Technologies used for this are

play21:41

standard ethernet adapted to vehicle use

play21:44

and flexray high-speed deterministic bus

play21:47

Network a can bus like system that is

play21:49

designed for time critical applications

play21:51

in

play21:52

vehicles with the introduction of hybrid

play21:55

and electric vehicles an entirely new

play21:57

realm of evolving standards have emerged

play21:59

that Encompass various aspects of EV

play22:02

wiring including the design installation

play22:05

and performance requirements of high

play22:06

voltage wiring harnesses cables

play22:09

connectors and Associated components

play22:12

standards such as ISO

play22:14

15118 IEC

play22:16

62196 and IEC 61851 Define communication

play22:21

protocols connectors and charging

play22:23

infrastructure specifications to

play22:25

facilitate seamless interaction between

play22:28

EVs and charging stations additionally

play22:30

standards like I 63110 and ISO

play22:35

6469 establish safety requirements for

play22:37

high voltage cables and electrical

play22:39

systems in EVS to mitigate risks

play22:42

associated with electrical

play22:45

hazards the automotive industry is

play22:47

experiencing a profound transformation

play22:49

navigating the shift from traditional

play22:52

combustion engines to electric power

play22:54

while balancing performance and the

play22:56

allore of driver experience with the

play22:58

potential rise of autonomy however

play23:01

despite this potential Paradigm Shift

play23:03

one constant Remains the critical role

play23:06

of wiring in

play23:10

vehicles it's the little Progressive

play23:12

changes over time that pushes an

play23:14

industry forward the Automotive

play23:16

Electrical industry is a perfect example

play23:18

of this small changes in materials and

play23:20

Designs over the decades laid the

play23:23

foundation for the incredibly

play23:24

sophisticated digital Vehicle Systems of

play23:27

today and at the heart of any

play23:28

advancement is the process of testing

play23:31

and measurement building a strong grasp

play23:33

of measurement and Analysis can be

play23:35

complicated but there's a free and easy

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way to get started immediately that's

play23:39

where brilliant.org comes in

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diving head first into learning A New

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constantly developing their courses to

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