Desmos Calculator Tips (ep 4): Digital SAT Strategy Guide

Settele Tutoring
12 May 202318:19

Summary

TLDRMike Sattell, founder of Sattell Tutoring, presents a guide on utilizing the Desmos calculator for the digital SAT. He emphasizes the calculator's ease of use and its ability to visualize algebraic concepts, making complex problems simpler. The video covers graphing systems of equations, solving for x without an equation, and using sliders for guess and check strategies. Sattell encourages practice with the calculator to familiarize oneself with its features and to improve overall SAT scores.

Takeaways

  • 📚 Mike Satter is the founder of Satell Tutoring and is providing strategies for the digital SAT in a 10-part video series.
  • 🎥 The video focuses on effectively using the built-in Desmos calculator for the digital SAT, which eliminates the need to bring a separate calculator.
  • 📈 Desmos calculator is primarily a graphing calculator that allows real-time visualization of equations and is free to use at desmos.com/calculator.
  • 🚀 The Desmos calculator can greatly aid in solving complex math problems with ease and minimal practice.
  • 🔍 The video demonstrates four specific ways to use the Desmos calculator: graphing and solving systems of equations, solving for x without an equation, visualizing changes to equations, and using SAT strategies like guess and check.
  • 🤔 The Desmos calculator is considered superior to traditional graphing calculators due to its intuitive interface and fewer buttons.
  • 📊 By using the Desmos calculator, students can avoid common mistakes and save time on the SAT, especially for system of equations and algebraic problem-solving.
  • 💡 The video emphasizes the importance of practice with the Desmos calculator to become familiar with its functions and shortcuts.
  • 🎯 The Desmos calculator helps visualize algebra, making abstract concepts more concrete and easier to understand.
  • 📈 The video encourages students to use the calculator as much as possible during the SAT to maximize efficiency and minimize errors.

Q & A

  • What is the main topic of Mike Satell's fourth video in his 10-part series?

    -The main topic of the video is how to effectively use the built-in Desmos calculator for the digital SAT.

  • Why does Mike Satell recommend subscribing to his channel for those planning to take the SAT?

    -He recommends subscribing because viewers can access all the videos and resources he has released, which are interrelated and provide a comprehensive understanding of strategies for improving the overall SAT score.

  • What is unique about the Desmos calculator according to Mike Satell?

    -The Desmos calculator is unique because it is a graphing calculator that is built into the digital SAT app, it's free, and has an intuitive interface with fewer buttons, making it easier to use than traditional graphing calculators.

  • How does Mike Satell suggest using the Desmos calculator for systems of equations?

    -He suggests entering the equations into the calculator, which will then graph them and automatically calculate the points of intersection, including X and Y intercepts, allowing for quick solutions without the need for algebraic manipulation.

  • What is a common trap that test-takers might fall into when solving systems of equations using the Desmos calculator?

    -A common trap is mistaking the coordinates of the points of intersection, such as confusing a positive number with a negative one, leading to the selection of incorrect answer choices.

  • How does the Desmos calculator handle equations with no Y coordinate or variable?

    -The Desmos calculator can graph equations with no Y coordinate or variable by displaying vertical lines at the X values derived from the equation, allowing users to identify valid answers like -5 or 3 as shown in the example.

  • What strategy does Mike Satell advise for dealing with complex equations involving square roots?

    -He advises entering the equation as written into the calculator, utilizing the keyboard function to input square roots and other complex elements, and then letting the calculator solve and graph the equation to identify the correct answers.

  • How can the Desmos calculator assist in visualizing changes to equations and graphs?

    -The Desmos calculator can visualize changes by allowing users to manipulate functions and equations directly on the graph, such as adding or subtracting terms, and observing the immediate impact on the graph's shape and position.

  • What is the advantage of using the Desmos calculator for guess and check strategies?

    -The advantage is that the calculator enables quick testing of different values and immediate visual confirmation of the results, reducing the time and effort required compared to manual guess and check methods.

  • What does Mike Satell emphasize as the most important aspect of using a graphing calculator for the SAT?

    -He emphasizes that the most important aspect is the ability to visualize algebra, as it allows test-takers to see the shapes and movements of equations and understand complex concepts more intuitively.

  • What advice does Mike Satell give for test-takers on when to use the Desmos calculator during the SAT?

    -He advises test-takers to practice with the calculator to know when to use it and when to rely on pencil and paper methods, and to use it as much as possible to minimize errors and maximize efficiency.

Outlines

00:00

📚 Introduction to Desmos Calculator for SAT

In this introductory segment, Mike Satell, the founder of Satell Tutoring, begins the fourth video of his 10-part series focused on strategies for the digital SAT. He emphasizes the Desmos calculator, a built-in tool for the SAT app, and encourages viewers to subscribe to his channel for comprehensive resources. Mike highlights the Desmos calculator's basic features and how they can significantly impact one's SAT score with minimal practice. He also mentions that while other tutors have created programs detailing the calculator's functions, his video will focus on the highlights and quick strategies for using the calculator effectively.

05:01

📈 Graphing and Solving Systems of Equations

Mike demonstrates how to quickly graph and solve systems of equations using the Desmos calculator. He advises against wasting time on algebraic solutions and instead shows how the calculator can efficiently identify points of intersection. Mike warns viewers to avoid common traps set by the SAT, such as confusing x and y coordinates, and emphasizes the importance of double-checking work. He also discusses the benefits of using the calculator over traditional algebraic methods, noting that it reduces the chance of making careless mistakes and saves time.

10:03

🔢 Dealing with Equations without Y Coordinates

In this part, Mike addresses a unique situation where an equation lacks a Y coordinate or variable. He explains how to input such equations into the Desmos calculator and how it handles square roots and other complex elements. Mike points out that while the calculator doesn't graph these equations as traditional curves, it still provides the correct x values, represented as vertical lines. He stresses the importance of practice to familiarize oneself with the calculator's functions and argues that the calculator's algebra-solving capabilities can save significant time and reduce errors.

15:03

📉 Adapting to Changes in Equations and Visualizing Algebra

Mike discusses how to adapt to changes in equations, specifically focusing on a scenario where an f(x) equation is altered to form a new G(x) equation. He illustrates how the Desmos calculator can visually show the shift in the graph of the equation, helping to identify the minimum value of G(x). Mike emphasizes the calculator's ability to visualize algebraic concepts, which can be particularly helpful for those who struggle with abstract algebraic thinking. He also touches on the SAT's tendency to create situations where mistakes are likely, advocating for the calculator's use to minimize errors and verify instincts.

🎓 Conclusion: Maximizing the Desmos Calculator's Potential

In the concluding segment, Mike reviews the key points discussed in the video, reiterating the Desmos calculator's usefulness in graphing systems of equations, solving complex algebra, and visualizing changes in equations. He stresses the importance of practicing with the calculator to become comfortable with its functions and shortcuts. Mike also acknowledges that while the calculator is a powerful tool, it won't solve every SAT question and that some problems will require manual solutions. He encourages viewers to continue exploring the calculator's features and to seek out additional resources to enhance their SAT preparation.

Mindmap

Keywords

💡Desmos calculator

The Desmos calculator is a built-in tool within the digital SAT app that students can use to graph equations and solve complex problems without needing to physically bring a calculator to the test. It is a graphing calculator that allows for visual representation of mathematical concepts, making it easier for students to understand and solve problems. In the video, Mike Sattler emphasizes the importance of practicing with the Desmos calculator to familiarize oneself with its interface and capabilities to improve overall SAT scores.

💡Digital SAT

The Digital SAT refers to the transition of the traditional paper-based SAT (Scholastic Assessment Test) to a digital format. This change allows students to take the standardized test on a computer, which includes the built-in Desmos calculator for mathematical problem-solving. The video series by Mike Sattler focuses on strategies specifically tailored for the digital SAT, aiming to help students adapt to this new format and maximize their performance.

💡Graphing

Graphing is the process of visually representing mathematical equations or functions on a coordinate plane. It is a fundamental concept in algebra and is used to understand the relationship between variables. In the context of the video, graphing is a key feature of the Desmos calculator that allows students to visualize equations and solve problems by observing the graphical representation of the equations.

💡Algebra

Algebra is a branch of mathematics that uses symbols and rules to solve equations and understand the relationships between quantities. In the video, algebraic concepts are central to the strategies discussed for the digital SAT, particularly in using the Desmos calculator to simplify complex algebraic problems and visualize solutions.

💡Subscription

A subscription, in the context of the video, refers to following Mike Sattler's YouTube channel to gain access to all parts of his 10-part series on strategies for the digital SAT. By subscribing, students can receive updates and access to the full range of resources designed to help them improve their SAT scores.

💡Practice

Practice, as emphasized in the video, is the act of repeatedly applying oneself to a task or skill to improve performance and mastery. Mike Sattler stresses the importance of practicing with the Desmos calculator to become familiar with its functions and to enhance problem-solving abilities for the digital SAT.

💡Strategy

A strategy in the context of the video refers to a specific approach or method designed to solve problems or achieve a goal, particularly in relation to test-taking for the digital SAT. Mike Sattler's video series aims to provide students with various strategies to tackle different sections of the SAT more effectively.

💡Visualization

Visualization in mathematics is the use of graphical or pictorial representations to understand and solve problems. In the video, Mike Sattler highlights the Desmos calculator's ability to visualize complex algebraic equations, making them more accessible and easier to comprehend for students.

💡Guess and check

Guess and check is a problem-solving technique that involves making an educated guess and then checking to see if it leads to the correct solution. In the video, Mike Sattler discusses using the Desmos calculator to employ this method by testing different values and observing the graphical outcomes to find the correct answers.

💡Trap answers

Trap answers are decoy options in multiple-choice questions that are designed to catch out test-takers who may not fully understand the problem or who may make careless mistakes. In the video, Mike Sattler warns students about the SAT's tendency to include trap answers and emphasizes the importance of using the Desmos calculator to avoid falling into these traps.

Highlights

Desmos calculator is built into the digital SAT app, eliminating the need to bring a separate calculator.

Desmos calculator is primarily a graphing calculator, allowing real-time visualization of equations.

The Desmos calculator is free and can be practiced with at desmos.com/calculator.

The calculator simplifies solving systems of equations by graphing and finding intersection points.

Desmos calculator automatically calculates X and Y intercepts for graphed equations.

It's important to avoid trap answers and double-check coordinates when using the calculator.

The calculator can handle equations with square roots, simplifying complex algebraic problems.

Desmos calculator allows for visualizing changes to equations and graphs, enhancing understanding.

Using the calculator can help apply SAT strategies like guess and check in a more intuitive way.

Desmos calculator is more intuitive and easier to use than traditional graphing calculators.

Practicing with the calculator at home helps familiarize users with its functions and shortcuts.

The calculator can solve for X even without a complete equation, by graphing and identifying valid answers.

Desmos calculator can be used to adjust and compare graphs, aiding in finding the minimum value of a function.

The slider feature on the calculator allows for easy guess and check of values in an equation.

The visual aspect of the Desmos calculator helps conceptualize abstract algebraic ideas more concretely.

By using the calculator strategically, students can save time and reduce the chance of making careless mistakes.

The Desmos calculator can handle a wide range of mathematical problems, making it a valuable tool for the SAT.

Transcripts

play00:00

hey everybody I'm Mike satell the

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founder of satell tutoring and this is

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the fourth video in my 10 part series

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covering all of the strategies for the

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digital SAT but this video can be

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watched in isolation I think in fact a

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lot of you might come to this through

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other means so you don't need to watch

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all the others I'm just going to hit the

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highlights for how to use the built-in

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Desmos calculator but I do recommend

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that you subscribe to my channel because

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then you can see all the other videos

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all the resources that I've released

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they are all much more interrelated

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working through different strategies and

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kind of referencing other videos so if

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you are a subscriber then you will get

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to see the entire big picture which is

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the best way to improve your overall

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score I'll also include a few of the

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more comprehensive analyzes of the

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calculator strategy for the digital sat

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in the description of my video some

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other tutors have made some really great

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programs that go through all the

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different little things that the

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calculator does but I wanted to as

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quickly as possible give you the

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highlights the stuff that can change

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your strategy and your score with very

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little practice and very little

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understanding of how the calculator

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works just using its basic features so

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hopefully this will make a big change in

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just a couple of minutes let me just

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talk quickly about what with the Desmos

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calculator even is it is built in to the

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app that you will take the digital sat

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on so you do not even need to bring a

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calculator with you to the SAT anymore

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now I still think you should something

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simple something like a scientific

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calculator just like this one it has you

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know basic functions it does have some

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more advanced stuff but I would only

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really use it to do some crazy

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multiplication or division or addition

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like the more basic stuff let the Desmos

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calculator be where all the fun stuff

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happens and that's because the Desmos

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calculator is a graphing calculator

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mostly so we can see all these equations

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in real time

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and the best part about it is it's free

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and you can use it right now if you want

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by going to desmos.com calculator I

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definitely recommend that you're

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planning to take the SAT you use this

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calculator in your practice so you can

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get used to how it feels and what it

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does and where all the buttons are it's

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definitely a little complicated at first

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but with practice it should be second

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nature how to work through some very

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complicated math and make it much much

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easier in this video I'm going to show

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you four specific things okay I'm going

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to show you how quickly we can graph and

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solve systems of equations how we can

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solve for x even if we don't have an

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equation per se and I can show you how

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we visualize changes to equations and

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just graphs in general and how we can

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use sat strategies like guess and check

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even on this calculator so it does

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really lend itself to the sat in

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particular because it lets us play with

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some things and test out answers in ways

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that a normal graphing calculator might

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not be able to do and that's the thing I

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think that the Desmos calculator is

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better than any real life calculator

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graphing calculator they've ever seen it

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just has fewer buttons things are more

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intuitive it's easier to use so

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hopefully you feel the same way let's

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Dive Right into a first question here

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this is pretty straightforward system of

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equations you got two equations here and

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in math class and school you would be

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asked to solve this system probably

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algebraically by either doing some sort

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of substitution or elimination something

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where we would eventually end up with an

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x equals or a y equals but I wouldn't

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bother with any of that here don't waste

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your time the calculator at its best is

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just going to let you see where the

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point of intersections are so you can

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see here I've already taken the time to

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just enter the two equations make sure

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that they're correct that you don't

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accidentally enter the wrong numbers but

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otherwise just enter them in and if you

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look at the red line here you can see

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that it's also automatically calculating

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your X and y-intercepts that's very

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convenient for other questions but the

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blue line is off the screen so we should

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scroll around until we find a point of

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intersection and again if you click it

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you'll see it just pops up it does the

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calculating for you negative 9 negative

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44. so what's happening here though is

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they're trying to get you into a trap

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with Choice C so we should zoom out or

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we can hit the home button to go back to

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the origin and now find another point of

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intersection that actually gives us an

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answer choice and if we zoom out we can

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see there's the one that we had before

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negative 9 negative 44 and now 14 is the

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correct answer because that is the x

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coordinate of the other point of

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intersection

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so what do we have to do to solve this

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question basically just type some stuff

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into a calculator and scroll around and

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boom the calculator just gives you the

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answer of course there are going to

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still be some trap answers maybe we

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misread a number we confuse that 9 and

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negative 9 are different numbers and so

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we pick C or sometimes what they'll do

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is they'll ask you to solve for x but

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then they'll give the y coordinate of

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the point of intersection just to

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confuse you so always double check those

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things but otherwise there's really no

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way to make some careless mistakes here

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whereas if I did solve this with algebra

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it would be long it would be tedious and

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the chance of me just calculating

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something wrong moving an X in the wrong

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place it's very very high and so I could

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waste a lot of time just to get the

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wrong answer this is so much better

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pretty much every system of equations

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you're now going to want to enter into

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the calculator some of you who are

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really great at algebra might find some

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situations where it's better to do it by

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hand to use your scrap paper and and

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show the work but you know with practice

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you'll you'll figure out those

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situations and for some of you if you

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don't have that sense of whether it's

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going to be easier to do by hand or

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easier doing the calculator then just

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always do it in the calculator it

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doesn't matter it's still going to be

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effective and efficient if you enter

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these things quickly

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let's look at a slightly weirder

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situation uh here's another equation but

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this time it's just one equation notice

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there's no Y coordinates no y variables

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here so

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um there are a couple of ways to handle

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this uh definitely though if I were

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looking at it I'd be like I don't really

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want to solve this algebraically by hand

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because it's got square roots it just it

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seems risky and what we should do then

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is enter it as written into the

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calculator so if you're having trouble

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with square roots you can hit the button

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on the bottom the little keyboard button

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and it'll bring up all the functions so

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you can hit that and then you can type

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the rest so 3x minus 10x equals

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or you can also type the letters sqrt

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and it'll Auto generate the square root

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symbol for you so this is why you should

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practice at home get used to that stuff

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um when we graph it you'll see that we

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get these two vertical lines and if we

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zoom out they're just kind of straight

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lines up and down the whole way so

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there's nothing fancy it's on a curve

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like the other ones before but they

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happen at negative five and at three

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and basically that's just giving us the

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answer either negative five or three

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would be valid answers to this question

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you don't need to Bubble both right

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notice the question just says what is

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one possible value so just pick one but

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both are acceptable

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so let me just explain what's happening

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here because there's no y equals this

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calculator is not graphing this like we

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would think of like a regular line or a

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parabola or anything that kind of Curves

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around it it doesn't have the kind of

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shape that a normal equation with a Y

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and an X would have

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but what the calculator is kind of doing

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here is just solving the algebra for us

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so it's it's kind of ending in the same

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place that you would end if you did this

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by hand right you'd have x equals

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negative 5 and x equals three as your

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two answers and you box them and you'd

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be like hey I did it so what that looks

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like though is a vertical line at

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negative five is the x equals negative 5

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equation and to draw x equals three on a

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graph you would get a vertical line at x

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equals three so it's kind of just giving

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you the X values but they're gonna look

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like these vertical lines but that's

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okay as long as you're comfortable with

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that you you've just let the computer do

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all this solving for you that's awesome

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that's what we want

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um the the reason I would definitely do

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that here is the square roots

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the square roots maybe are also causing

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a little bit of a problem that I noticed

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sometimes with this strategy which is we

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can't click the x-intercept and and get

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the actual point like we could before

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when you're doing the intersections or

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the intercepts there so I think that the

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reason that happens is the square root

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is just like a messy thing and the the

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computer can't really like give us that

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point but it doesn't matter right we

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could zoom in we can kind of clearly see

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that the the lines go through negative

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five and three I guess it's possible

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that instead of going through three it

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goes through like

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2.99999999 forever but like the odds of

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that happening are very slim and and we

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can of course keep zooming in and really

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just make sure that the vertical line is

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where it looks to us and that saves us a

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huge amount of time and headache and

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chance of a mistake by actually being

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able to just let the the machine the

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calculator do the calculating for us so

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not only is it a graph but it also is an

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algebra solver this is really really

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helpful and just like before there might

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be cases there probably will be cases in

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fact we're letting the calculator do the

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algebra is a waste of time the algebra

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is so easy or something that it's just

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better to just do it yourself

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but again if you are not good at

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determining those situations then you're

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probably just not good at algebra and so

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you probably do want to default to the

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calculator as much as possible to just

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do as much of the work as possible for

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you because you cannot be trusted to do

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it yourself without errors but this is

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why you practice the the test the same

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way you would take the test have the

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calculator ready to go and know when try

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to figure out when you should go to it

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and when you should do things with a

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pencil pencil and paper your scrap

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um let's take a look at another one

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here we have a a question that would

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definitely throw people off it's giving

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us an f of x equation that's kind of

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complicated it's also then telling us to

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change that equation in some way by

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talking about a new equation G of X that

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has this f of x minus four piece

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um and then we have to find the minimum

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value of both of these or I guess I'm

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the G of X equation so what would throw

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people up here is they don't understand

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like intuitively how the graph is going

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to move some of you might

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but I do find that this is also one of

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those cases where people are prone to

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error so I wouldn't trust just my logic

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and my knowledge I'd want the calculator

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to show me that my instincts are correct

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so what we can do is not only use y

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equals to set up an equation but we can

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use function notation itself so we have

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f of x here setting us up so that way we

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can type the original f of x equation

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and then the second line I typed the G

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of X equation using f of x and so it's

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literally just the two things that they

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gave us in the question I just type them

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as is and let's see it's going to show

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us what happens as we change this so you

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can see oh here yes the letters are all

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given so if you can if you have a

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keyboard for some reason you can always

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find the letters in the keyboard thing

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and we get a parabola and there's our

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vertex negative 12 4 and you can see

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there's a trap because that's the

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original minimum but if we turn on the G

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of X we see that it shifts to negative

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eight which is the correct answer and we

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can turn off the one we don't want so

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we're not confused and and that's really

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it is is we're able to see this graph

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move in a direction rather than have to

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actually just like guess it what the

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direction is going to be or think about

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it we can see it and know for sure so

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there are definitely ways to do this

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manually to find the vertex of a

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parabola manually to shift a graph

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manually

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but why why do it why even open the door

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to a possible careless mistake just let

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the computer solve it for you let the

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calculator Desmos do the work and and

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that's really kind of like the whole

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point of this is that you have to

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recognize the SAT is very good at

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creating situations where you're going

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to make a mistake it's good at forcing

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errors

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so knowing that we have to be humble and

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doubt ourselves and be able to just know

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when to to put it into the calculator

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instead and let that thing do the work

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let's look at one more situation where I

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think it would be difficult uh with any

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other graphing calculator to kind of

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solve in a in a good way so here's a

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question where we don't have an equation

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actually we have an expression so

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there's no equal sign but you can see I

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set up the first equation the first

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expression as an equation by just

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throwing in a y equals and basically

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what that lets me do is is see this

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thing more like the kinds of grass I'm

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used to right where it kind of moves

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along the x-axis and goes up and goes

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down and all that stuff so I'll zoom in

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in a second but you can kind of see it's

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got like a little bump at the origin

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now they're asking us to figure out what

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the an equivalent expression would be so

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uh we can definitely just take this

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second equation and type it into the

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second line and again I'm going to use a

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y equals to do that

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and we can see the keyboard will let us

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do all of this if we don't want to type

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or we don't have a keyboard so y equals

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and I'm going to type the 3 and then

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obviously create a fraction is just

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division so just use the division symbol

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and then x squared plus K and you'll see

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when I hit the k

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it's in the letters and we get this

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option to add a slider so we're going to

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click that and we can see a new line

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comes up and it literally is a slider if

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you slide it you see all the different

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versions of this equation as if K is

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different numbers but we don't want it

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to be random numbers let's try the

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numbers that are in the choices so we do

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seven and we zoom in we can see these

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these two expressions are very similar

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but look they're not quite the same

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there's a little difference so if we

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change it to eight though we can see now

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the two green and black lines overlap

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and we can turn them on and off and see

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that it's literally the same thing if we

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try the other choices we can see again

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21 they're different 392 it's going to

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be different and so we know now that 8

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is the answer because we were told to

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find an equivalent expression and by

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playing with this value of K with a

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different guess and check answer choices

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that we have we can see which one gives

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us the graph that's the same so normally

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you know old SAT no calculator we would

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have to do this by hand and think about

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this conceptually and algebraically and

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understand why the equations are

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actually the same but with the graphing

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calculator we can just see what's going

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on much more easily we can test these

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different numbers out even if we don't

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know it for sure the slider lets us plug

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things in we can either use the slider

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that's there or you saw me typing the

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specific numbers that I wanted and as I

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change them the graph of the equation

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changed as well and we can just wait

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until we get the equation that we want

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because the graph will be what we want

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it to be and so these equivalent

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expressions should produce equivalent

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graphs and they only did it eight I

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could see it there was no doubt in my

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mind in fact I still don't really know

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why that's the case I don't care I have

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the answer and so very quickly within

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just a few seconds this very hard

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question becomes much easier and you can

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get it confidently and there will there

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will be plenty of questions where you

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can't use the calculator this way but

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now you have more time to do the hand

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and scrap paper kind of stuff that you

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need for those other situations it's

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really the calculator is a great tool it

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is not going to solve every single

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question on the SAT but if you can use

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it more often to claw back some time

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then for the truly difficult stuff you

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will be able to kind of hopefully finish

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just by doing it by hand

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let's review what we talked about here

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again the calculator is built into the

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section you don't need to bring a

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calculator but you can if you want just

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have a backup but you should get

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comfortable with the Desmos calculator

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as you practice get used to where the

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buttons are get used to how to type

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things get used to all the little

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shortcuts and like I said there are

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other tutors out there with videos that

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are much longer that are going to go

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into much more detail about what this

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calculator can do there are some other

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features I'm skeptical of some of them

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as as being more efficient but maybe for

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you you'll like them so go into that

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other tutors and check out what they're

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doing but for me the the key pieces are

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what we talked about it lets us graph

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systems of equations very easily it lets

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us solve for x for very difficult

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algebra very easily and we can kind of

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use this slider to play around and even

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if we don't have a specific value we

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have to kind of find a value we can

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guess and check our way to it and the

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the third bullet point there is I think

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the most important one in in all of

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these cases the thing that a graphing

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calculator lets us do is visualize

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algebra what so many people struggle

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with in algebra is it's all kind of

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conceptual and Abstract right what is

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this x it's a number but it's not a

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number it's a number we don't know and

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so it's difficult to wrap your brain

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around what's even happening but with

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this uh graphing calculator we can see

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what an equation looks like it creates a

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shape right we could compare shapes we

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can see shapes change and move and where

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the shapes cross these are all really

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powerful things that I think tap into

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the way the human brain really works so

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we're going to use the calculator to

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just think the way our brain wants us to

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think it's it's just a really great

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addition to the test I think it's going

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to make some of the math way easier for

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a lot of you so we want to be able to

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take advantage of it and I hope this

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helped again there's more out there so

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feel free to keep uh commenting on any

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other new features that you really like

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that I didn't get to in my my lesson

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here but please subscribe go check out

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the other lessons go learn about the

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real strategies for the SAT the real

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different stuff that that isn't unique

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and that where you know with math

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especially we might not be able to use a

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calculator I will show you other

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strategies so please subscribe it really

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helps me out and remember when it comes

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to your scores don't settle for less so

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tell for more thanks for watching

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