How Do Our Eyes Really Work? (The Story of Vision) | Only Human

Only Human
22 Jan 202255:00

Summary

TLDRThe video script explores the critical importance of vision to human life, highlighting the complex process of sight and the various challenges that threaten it. It discusses the global issue of poor vision, the impact of uncorrected refractive errors, and the devastating effects of blindness. The narrative delves into personal stories of individuals overcoming vision loss, the role of technology in vision correction, and the potential of medical advancements like stem cell research and retinal prosthetics. The script also addresses the broader implications of vision loss on society and the economy, emphasizing the need for accessible eye care and the transformative power of restoring sight.

Takeaways

  • πŸ‘€ Sight is a critical sense, with over 2.5 billion people globally experiencing vision problems due to unaddressed issues.
  • 🌟 The eye is a complex organ, processing light through a series of transparent and opaque structures to transmit visual data to the brain.
  • πŸ’‘ Vision loss can occur due to various factors, including age-related conditions, myopic macular degeneration, and injuries from accidents or war.
  • 🌍 Globally, uncorrected refractive errors are the leading cause of visual impairment, affecting productivity and quality of life, and are particularly prevalent in developing countries.
  • πŸ‘“ Glasses and other vision correction tools have evolved from simple devices to not only correct vision but also integrate technology and fashion.
  • πŸ› οΈ Advances in eyewear technology include protective lenses that block harmful blue light from digital devices and ultraviolet rays from the sun.
  • 🩺 Medical interventions such as cataract surgery and corneal transplants can restore vision and significantly improve quality of life.
  • 🧬 Research into stem cell therapy and gene expression offers hope for regenerating damaged retinal cells and potentially curing diseases like macular degeneration.
  • 🌐 Organizations like Orbis and Vision Brigades work to combat blindness by training local eye care professionals in developing countries.
  • πŸ”‹ Wearable technology in eyewear is being developed to monitor health metrics and deliver drugs, further blending medical needs with technological innovation.

Q & A

  • What is the significance of the eyes in terms of human senses?

    -Sight is arguably our most important sense as it allows us to perceive and interpret the world around us. The eyes, often referred to as the windows to the soul, are delicate orbs that work in conjunction with the brain to create images and help us navigate our environment.

  • How do photoreceptors contribute to the process of sight?

    -Photoreceptors, found in the retina, are responsible for sensing light. There are two types: rods, which are sensitive to low levels of light, and cones, which are responsible for color vision and function best in bright light. The information from these photoreceptors is transmitted to the brain, allowing us to see and interpret the visual world.

  • What is the role of the optic nerve in vision?

    -The optic nerve transmits coded electrical impulses from the retina to the brain. It gathers neurons at the optic disk and forms a bundle that carries visual information. The optic nerve is crucial for processing and interpreting the images we see.

  • What is the impact of uncorrected refractive error on global productivity?

    -Uncorrected refractive error is a leading cause of visual impairment and significantly affects global productivity. It is estimated to cost 272 billion dollars per year, impacting individuals' abilities to learn, work, and enjoy life quality. Correcting this issue is considered a worthwhile investment compared to the benefits it could bring.

  • How does the brain process visual information?

    -The brain processes visual information through various regions in the cerebral cortex. These regions communicate actively with each other to build the images we perceive. The brain's ability to make guesses and inferences about what we see is a testament to its power and complexity.

  • What is the significance of the development of sensory substitution devices like the brain port?

    -Sensory substitution devices like the brain port offer a way for individuals with visual impairments to experience the visual world. By translating visual information into electrical stimuli that can be perceived through other senses, such as touch or hearing, these devices can help restore a sense of sight and improve quality of life.

  • What is the role of eyeglasses in vision correction and fashion?

    -Eyeglasses serve a dual purpose in vision correction and fashion. They correct refractive errors, helping individuals see clearly, and also function as a fashion accessory, allowing people to express their personal style. The convergence of medical necessity and fashion in eyewear has led to a wide variety of designs and the acceptance of glasses as a normal part of everyday life.

  • How does the World Health Organization prioritize uncorrected refractive error?

    -The World Health Organization recognizes uncorrected refractive error as the leading cause of visual impairment and the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. This acknowledgment highlights the importance of addressing this issue on a global scale.

  • What are the challenges associated with treating corneal diseases in developing countries?

    -Corneal diseases are common in developing countries, where access to eye banks and advanced medical facilities is limited. The high cost of processing donor corneas and cultural beliefs can also hinder corneal transplants. Organizations like ORBIS and collaborative research efforts aim to train local professionals and improve eye care in these regions.

  • What is the potential impact of stem cell therapy in treating vision-related conditions?

    -Stem cell therapy holds promise in treating various vision-related conditions, including age-related macular degeneration and corneal damage. By using a patient's own cells, researchers aim to replace damaged photoreceptor cells and restore vision, offering a potential solution for conditions that currently lack effective treatments.

Outlines

00:00

πŸ‘€ The Marvel of Vision and the Global Vision Crisis

This paragraph delves into the significance of vision and the complex process that allows us to see. It highlights the fact that sight is our most important sense, involving a series of intricate steps from light entering the eye to the brain interpreting visual information. The paragraph also discusses the global quiet vision crisis, affecting billions of people due to various forms of blindness and visual impairments, emphasizing the impact on productivity and quality of life. It introduces the topic of the video, which is the story of sight, the eyes, and the brain'sεεŒδ½œη”¨ to create images of the world, as well as the scientific, medical, and technological advancementsθ‡΄εŠ›ζ–Ό preserving and restoring our vision.

05:01

πŸ‘οΈβ€πŸ—¨οΈ Understanding the Eye's Photoreceptors and Visual Processing

This section explains the role of photoreceptors, rods, and cones, in the retina and their different reactions to photons, which initiate the sensation of seeing. It further explores the process of visual information pre-processing in the retina before it's sent to the brain. The paragraph also discusses the complexity of the brain's visual processing, the optic nerve's path, and the brain's ability to infer and make guesses about what it 'sees'. It presents the case of Chris, an Iraq war veteran with traumatic brain injury and vision loss, illustrating the brain's adaptability and the challenges of vision rehabilitation.

10:02

🧠 Brain's Role in Visual Perception and Rehabilitation

This paragraph examines the brain's role in visual perception, emphasizing the cerebral cortex's function in higher-order visual processing. It describes how different brain regions communicate to build the images we see and how the brain uses sensory substitution to perceive the world without direct visual signals. The paragraph introduces innovative technologies like the brain port, which uses sensory substitution to help blind individuals 'see' through other senses. It also addresses the issue of various causes of blindness and the potential for technological solutions to overcome visual impairments.

15:03

πŸ‘“ The Impact of Uncorrected Refractive Error on Society

This section discusses the widespread issue of uncorrected refractive error, its impact on society, and the economic burden it imposes. It provides statistics on the number of people affected and the associated costs to the medical industry and global productivity. The paragraph also explores the transformative power of correcting refractive errors through glasses, the importance of vision care, and the potential economic benefits of addressing this issue on a global scale.

20:04

πŸ‘΅ Aging and Vision: The Prevalence of Presbyopia and Cataracts

This paragraph focuses on the common age-related vision problems, such as presbyopia and cataracts. It explains the causes and effects of these conditions, including the hardening of the crystalline lens and the clouding of vision. The section also touches on the history and evolution of eyeglasses, their role in fashion and clinical needs, and the emerging trends in eyewear that combine style with health benefits.

25:05

🌞 Blue Light and UV Protection: The Role of Eyewear

This section discusses the dangers of blue light and UV radiation on our eyes and health. It explains how excessive exposure to these types of light can lead to various eye conditions and sleep disorders. The paragraph highlights the solutions provided by eyeglass manufacturers to block blue light and protect the eyes. It also emphasizes the importance of raising awareness about the need for protective eyewear, similar to the use of sunscreen, and the efforts to reduce the impact of these harmful lights on our health.

30:07

πŸ¦‹ Advances in Vision Correction and the Future of Eye Care

This paragraph outlines the advancements in vision correction, including the development of contact lenses and their various applications. It discusses the potential of contact lenses for biometric measuring, drug delivery, and integration of technologies similar to Google Glass. The section also explores the future possibilities of vision correction, emphasizing the importance of continued research and innovation in eye care to improve and preserve vision for individuals worldwide.

35:10

πŸ› οΈ Surgical Interventions and Innovations in Treating Eye Diseases

This section delves into surgical interventions for eye diseases, highlighting cataract surgery as a common and successful procedure. It discusses the efforts to address the backlog of unoperated cataracts in developing countries through initiatives like Vision Brigades. The paragraph also covers the role of organizations like ORBIS in training local eye care professionals and the advancements in treating corneal diseases, including the use of stem cell transplantation. The focus is on the importance of collaborative efforts to prevent blindness and improve eye health globally.

40:12

🌐 The Epidemic of Myopia and Its Consequences

This paragraph addresses the increasing prevalence of myopia, or nearsightedness, especially in Asia, and its associated risks, such as myopic macular degeneration. It discusses the genetic and environmental factors contributing to the rise in myopia and the impact of lifestyle on its development. The section also highlights research findings on the benefits of spending time outdoors to reduce the risk of myopia and the potential strategies to slow its progression. The focus is on the need for awareness and action to mitigate the epidemic and its long-term consequences on vision health.

45:12

πŸ’‘ Restoring Sight: Innovations and Humanitarian Efforts

This paragraph showcases the cutting-edge research and technological advancements aimed at restoring sight to those with retinal diseases and damage. It highlights the work of Dr. Sheila Nirenberg and her team, who have decoded the retina's signal to the brain and developed a transmitter to generate the code. The section also presents the potential of optogenetics, a light-sensitive protein, in restoring vision. The paragraph emphasizes the importance of continued research and the dedication of individuals and organizations in the mission to combat blindness and improve the quality of life for those affected.

Mindmap

Keywords

πŸ’‘Vision

Vision refers to the ability to see and interpret visual information. In the context of the video, it is the primary sense discussed, and the focus is on its importance, the complex process it entails, and the various conditions and technologies that can affect or restore it. The video emphasizes the significance of vision to our daily lives and the global efforts to combat vision loss.

πŸ’‘Photoreceptors

Photoreceptors are specialized cells in the retina that respond to light and convert it into electrical signals. Rods and cones are the two types of photoreceptors, with rods being sensitive to low light levels and cones responsible for color vision and high visual acuity. The video highlights the role of photoreceptors in the vision process and how their dysfunction can lead to various forms of blindness.

πŸ’‘Retinal Degeneration

Retinal degeneration refers to the deterioration of the retina's ability to function properly, often resulting in vision loss. The video discusses conditions such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP), which are types of retinal degeneration that can lead to significant impairment or blindness. These conditions are often progressive and can be caused by genetic or environmental factors.

πŸ’‘Cataracts

Cataracts are a clouding of the lens in the eye that can lead to vision loss. They are a common age-related condition and can also be caused by injury or certain health issues. The video emphasizes the impact of cataracts on global blindness and the effectiveness of cataract surgery in restoring vision, often with the use of intraocular lenses to correct refractive errors.

πŸ’‘Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that damage the optic nerve, often due to increased pressure within the eye. It can lead to irreversible vision loss if left untreated. The video discusses the risk factors for glaucoma, such as age and ethnicity, and the importance of regular eye exams for early detection and treatment to prevent blindness.

πŸ’‘Myopia

Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a common refractive error where close objects appear clearly, but distant objects appear blurry. The video discusses the increasing prevalence of myopia, particularly in Asia, and its association with environmental factors such as reduced time spent outdoors. It also highlights the potential risks of severe myopia, including retinal detachment and myopic macular degeneration.

πŸ’‘Stem Cell Therapy

Stem cell therapy involves the use of stem cells to treat or prevent diseases or conditions, including those affecting the eye. In the context of the video, it is discussed as a potential treatment for retinal degeneration, where stem cells could replace damaged photoreceptor cells and restore vision. This therapy is still in the research and development phase but holds promise for the future of vision restoration.

πŸ’‘Visual Cortex

The visual cortex is the area of the brain responsible for processing visual information received from the eyes. It is involved in the interpretation of the electrical signals from the retina into the images we perceive. The video discusses the complexity of the visual cortex and its ability to process and make sense of the vast amount of visual information, as well as its role in conditions like neglect, where a person is unaware of visual input from a certain area of their visual field.

πŸ’‘Refractive Error

Refractive error is a vision condition where the eye does not focus light properly on the retina, resulting in blurry vision. Common types include myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism. The video emphasizes the impact of uncorrected refractive error as a leading cause of visual impairment and its economic implications, as well as the availability of corrective measures like glasses.

πŸ’‘Optic Nerve

The optic nerve is the bundle of nerve fibers that transmit visual information from the retina to the brain. Damage to the optic nerve can result in vision loss or blindness. The video discusses conditions that affect the optic nerve, such as traumatic brain injury and diseases like glaucoma, and the challenges in detecting and treating these conditions.

πŸ’‘Corneal Transplant

A corneal transplant, also known as a keratoplasty, is a surgical procedure where damaged or diseased cornea is replaced with healthy donor cornea tissue. This can be a treatment for conditions such as corneal blindness, which is often caused by infections or injuries. The video discusses the process and importance of corneal transplants, as well as the challenges in certain regions due to lack of donor corneas and the high cost of processing.

Highlights

Exploring the complex process of sight, from photons to visual cortex processing.

Understanding the anatomy and function of the eye, including lenses, photoreceptors, and neural fibers.

Investigating the global vision crises and its impact on productivity and personal well-being.

Technologies and methodologies for overcoming blindness and vision impairments.

The role of genetics and environmental factors in vision and eye health.

Advancements in treating age-related blindness and other degenerative eye diseases.

Exploring the implications of untreated refractive errors on global productivity.

Impact of corrective lenses on personal productivity and societal benefits.

Innovative treatments for macular degeneration and myopia.

Advancements in stem cell research for eye health and vision restoration.

The potential of optogenetics in treating retinal diseases and restoring sight.

Exploration of sensory substitution devices to provide experiences of the visual world.

Investigating the psychological and social aspects of vision loss and recovery.

The role of international collaborations and training in addressing global eye health issues.

Personal stories of overcoming vision loss and the importance of sight in human experience.

Transcripts

play00:00

are you going to bug me i might get a

play00:01

mug you it's that gorgeous one

play00:05

and i believe i can run for decent

play00:06

marathon

play00:08

download

play00:09

now

play00:14

the americans have widened their

play00:15

operation against rebel forces

play00:18

the battlefield in fallujah is shrinking

play00:21

we went to go check out our vehicle

play00:23

stuck in the road

play00:24

cleared it on the way back a daisy chain

play00:30

the other one got me at the perfect

play00:32

angle to launch in the air

play00:36

i decided a long time ago that i've

play00:38

always wanted to climb mount kilimanjaro

play00:40

it was something that i wanted to do

play00:42

with or without my disabilities

play00:46

there are about 7.5 billion people who

play00:49

live in this world and one third of them

play00:52

it's 2.5 billion

play00:54

are walking around the streets with poor

play00:56

vision

play01:00

sight is arguably our most important

play01:03

sense an extremely complex process which

play01:06

requires light that can start with

play01:08

photons generated in distant stars

play01:10

millions of light years away and end in

play01:13

the visual cortex of our brains

play01:15

in the middle of the process

play01:17

our eyes

play01:18

delicate orbs that are formed by

play01:20

transparent and opaque structures micro

play01:23

muscles lenses photoreactive cells and a

play01:26

vast network of neural fibers that all

play01:29

work in unison to transmit the data

play01:31

carried by photons to our brain

play01:34

this is a story about how our eyes and

play01:36

our brains work to create the images of

play01:39

the world in our head

play01:41

and the science medicine and technology

play01:44

that keeps them working for us

play01:47

it also presents the quiet vision crises

play01:50

that are taking place across the globe

play01:52

and their enormous cost to global

play01:54

productivity

play01:55

from the many forms of age-related

play01:57

blindness in the developed world to

play02:00

blindness caused by myopic macular

play02:02

degeneration in asia

play02:04

and the cloudy visual world created by

play02:06

cataracts across the equatorial regions

play02:08

of the world

play02:10

no one is exempt

play02:11

just growing old is a risk to our site

play02:15

then there are the forms of blindness

play02:17

that a man made through accidents and

play02:19

war

play02:20

and the stories of the victims who

play02:21

refuse to surrender to a world of

play02:23

darkness

play02:31

this is sight

play02:32

the story

play02:37

[Music]

play02:41

the eyes

play02:43

romantically called the windows to the

play02:45

soul

play02:46

lovers throughout history have held each

play02:49

other's gazes from across a room

play02:51

speaking volumes

play02:53

without saying words

play02:55

scientifically the eyes are extensions

play02:58

of our brains designed to capture

play03:00

photons and convert the information they

play03:02

carry into an electric signal that the

play03:05

brain can use

play03:06

a lot of people think that a good

play03:07

metaphor for the brain is a camera a

play03:09

camera has a lens that focuses the light

play03:11

that comes from the world it lands on a

play03:13

sensor which converts that light into

play03:16

electricity and get stored as digital

play03:18

images and our brain is and our eyes are

play03:20

much like that in a way so you have a

play03:23

system of lenses the first lens is the

play03:26

cornea where the light penetrates and

play03:28

then it penetrates through the pupil

play03:29

which actually has a diaphragm that

play03:32

regulates how much

play03:33

light gets into the eye and that light

play03:35

allows the concentration and focusing of

play03:38

the light to go through the crystalline

play03:39

lens the crystalline lens is that very

play03:41

peculiar structure in the eye and if you

play03:43

remember the old

play03:45

magnifying lens that would focus the

play03:47

sunlight on a piece of paper well that's

play03:49

exactly what the crystalline lens will

play03:52

do it will focus the eye

play03:53

back here on the retina the light has to

play03:56

go through the entire retina

play03:58

so the retina has to be transparent

play04:00

and then it gets sensed at something

play04:03

called photoreceptors our retina has two

play04:05

types of photoreceptors called rods and

play04:07

cones rods are sensitive to low levels

play04:10

of light so actually when we're out at

play04:11

night if you notice you don't see color

play04:14

very well in the dark or in very dim

play04:15

light and that's because the cones don't

play04:17

have enough light to see and the rods

play04:19

are the ones that are active cones

play04:20

there's actually three types people call

play04:22

them the short medium and long

play04:23

wavelength cones which very roughly

play04:25

correspond to red green and blue colors

play04:28

different mixtures of those produce all

play04:30

the different colors that we can see you

play04:31

have the highest amount of cones in the

play04:33

very central part of your vision exactly

play04:35

where you're looking

play04:36

and this allows us to perceive all the

play04:38

rich colorful information that we get by

play04:40

moving our eyes around and sampling from

play04:42

place to place we have more rods in the

play04:44

periphery

play04:45

and this is the source of a common

play04:47

phenomena that people can see when they

play04:48

look outside if you look up in the dark

play04:50

at the starlit sky

play04:52

you often will see a dim star and then

play04:54

you look at it you actually think that

play04:56

it goes away and then you look a little

play04:58

bit away from it and you can see it

play04:59

again and this is because we don't have

play05:01

rods in our central vision the

play05:03

photoreceptors rods and cones react

play05:06

differently to the photons striking them

play05:08

but both are critical for our brain to

play05:11

see the photoreceptors contain a

play05:13

chemical that changes conformation

play05:16

and that change in conformation uh is

play05:19

what initiates the sensation of seeing

play05:22

that signal goes from the photoreceptor

play05:25

and then that photoreceptor is connected

play05:28

at several different points to a set of

play05:30

cells called bipolar cells

play05:33

that bipolar cell then is speaking to a

play05:37

retinal ganglion cell as its next

play05:40

communication but before it goes to the

play05:42

retinal ganglion cell it also splits off

play05:45

and talks to other bipolar cells it

play05:47

talks to multiple ganglion cells there's

play05:49

all this crosstalk happening in the

play05:51

retina and that's happening to process

play05:54

the information that's being provided to

play05:57

the body by that sensing of light the

play06:00

function of the retina is to pre-process

play06:03

information visual information so that

play06:05

the brain can process it the retina

play06:07

pulls information out of it it takes

play06:09

what you need to know

play06:11

and it ignores all the parts you don't

play06:12

need to know and it like does data

play06:14

compression and it converts that into a

play06:17

code and then sends it up to the brain

play06:19

and then the brain processes it further

play06:21

the conversion and encoding of the

play06:23

information carried by the light that

play06:25

strikes the retina is very complicated

play06:28

but the complexity of the process is

play06:30

just beginning

play06:32

the neurons that transmit the coded

play06:34

electric impulses gather together at the

play06:36

optic disk to form the optic nerve if we

play06:40

look at the path of the optic nerve from

play06:42

the top down

play06:43

the fibers leave the optic discs as a

play06:45

single bunch

play06:47

when the nerve passes through the bony

play06:49

optic canal and reaches the optic chiasm

play06:52

the fibers divide into right and left

play06:54

visual fields

play06:56

the right field travels to the left side

play06:58

of the brain while the left to the right

play07:00

side of the brain this arrangement

play07:02

provides our brain the ability to see

play07:05

stereoscopically

play07:07

but seeing by the brain is much more

play07:09

complicated and this is where the camera

play07:12

analogy breaks down we have a spot in

play07:14

each of our eyes called the optic disc

play07:17

where we have no neurons no

play07:18

photoreceptors we actually can't see

play07:21

what's there yet we don't have the

play07:23

perception that there's a black hole in

play07:25

our vision everywhere that teaches us

play07:26

that really what our brains do

play07:28

is they infer they make guesses another

play07:31

example of the power of the brain's

play07:33

ability to infer what we see is chris

play07:36

raider chris is an iraq war veteran that

play07:39

came home with post-traumatic stress

play07:41

disorder that went undiagnosed when i

play07:44

was in the marine corps i was in 0811

play07:46

which is field artillery

play07:48

i was the lead gunner of gun 4 for alpha

play07:50

battery first battalion 10th marines

play07:53

we went through the initial invasion i

play07:55

had ptsd when i came back but it was

play07:58

something that i didn't want to admit

play07:59

that i had chris's untreated ptsd

play08:03

eventually had catastrophic effects on

play08:05

him it was june 7th of 2009

play08:09

i did a poker run on my motorcycle and

play08:11

on my race home i

play08:14

did not make it and i woke up

play08:16

three months later in a hospital

play08:19

the police report states that chris hit

play08:21

a car launching him into the air barely

play08:23

missing another motorcyclist to land

play08:25

with his motorcycle on top of him

play08:27

engulfed in flames

play08:30

in the accident i got a traumatic brain

play08:32

injury or known as tdi

play08:34

the doctors told my parents i would

play08:36

never walk and talk again chris awoke

play08:38

from his coma with damage to his optic

play08:41

nerve of the optic chiasm i have a brain

play08:44

injury with a vision loss from the optic

play08:47

nerve the optic nerves one is on your

play08:49

right side and one is on your left and

play08:50

they cross fields like this

play08:52

so my right optic nerve is gone so i've

play08:54

got heminopsia which means the whole

play08:56

left field is gone but chris's condition

play08:59

went undetected because of the brain's

play09:01

ability to infer what it is seeing there

play09:04

is a condition called neglect

play09:07

you've lost half of the vision in the

play09:09

left eye corresponding half in the right

play09:12

eye

play09:13

and in neglect not only have you lost

play09:15

the vision you don't know there is

play09:17

anything there

play09:18

it's it's a very

play09:20

interesting condition from a research

play09:22

point of view very frustrating to

play09:24

rehabilitate because the person

play09:27

you know may deny that they even have

play09:29

the condition they retain 2020 visual

play09:32

acuity so what could be wrong with the

play09:34

visual system chris moved through the

play09:36

veterans administration hospital system

play09:38

and eventually ended up at their western

play09:41

blind rehabilitation center in menlo

play09:43

park california we had a tendency to

play09:46

walk into the left side of doorways

play09:49

or trip over things that were on his

play09:51

left side i didn't admit i was blind i

play09:54

would argue that you know it was

play09:56

pointless

play09:57

until i walked into a pole broke my nose

play10:00

working with him

play10:02

he was able to learn to scan to the left

play10:06

bring his good area of vision into play

play10:09

and walking through doors was no longer

play10:11

a problem to better comprehend how the

play10:13

brain can be retrained to see

play10:15

we must understand how the signals from

play10:17

the retina are distributed i study the

play10:20

cerebral cortex or the covering of the

play10:22

brain

play10:23

which contains neurons that are

play10:24

responsible for all sorts of higher

play10:26

order functions in perception and

play10:27

cognition our visual cortex actually

play10:29

makes up more than half of our cerebral

play10:31

cortex primates are very visual animals

play10:33

there's more than 30 different regions

play10:35

of the brain that are responsible for

play10:36

different types of visual processing

play10:38

these different regions of the brain

play10:40

cross talk to build the images we see

play10:43

all of the different regions of the

play10:44

brain are actually communicating very

play10:46

actively with each other all the time so

play10:48

for instance if you need to know

play10:50

where an object is to reach out to it or

play10:52

to look at it you also might be at the

play10:55

same time trying to know

play10:57

which object to select from many and so

play10:59

you really need to constantly have

play11:01

communication between these different

play11:02

brain regions that are constantly

play11:04

updating and making guesses about what's

play11:06

out there in the world sensing what's

play11:08

there and helping inform your actions

play11:10

the communication in the visual cortex

play11:12

is not limited to data from the eyes

play11:15

researchers at the university of

play11:17

pittsburgh and fox center for vision

play11:19

restoration are discovering that the

play11:22

brain can see even without a signal from

play11:24

the eyes we're encouraged by the fact

play11:27

that we can do something called sensory

play11:29

substitution

play11:31

and still give people an experience of

play11:34

the visual world that is not true visual

play11:36

perception but it is a experience of the

play11:38

visual world in terms of the visual

play11:40

cortical neuroprosthesis our goal

play11:43

is to be able to use technology that

play11:46

would essentially plug directly into the

play11:48

brain

play11:49

and provide a true visual percept one of

play11:53

these substitution devices is the brain

play11:55

port the way the device works is that

play11:59

a camera is mounted on a pair of glasses

play12:02

and this camera inputs the visual

play12:04

information

play12:06

and turns it into an electrical stimulus

play12:08

that's on a lollipop that you place on

play12:10

the tongue we know that

play12:13

when

play12:14

patients

play12:15

are presented with that information on

play12:18

the tongue

play12:19

who are blind

play12:21

they use their visual pathways in order

play12:24

to process that information there's some

play12:27

plasticity

play12:28

within the brain

play12:31

that allows the information to be

play12:33

processed in the visual system in people

play12:36

who are

play12:36

blind and

play12:38

that happens

play12:40

relatively quickly within days to weeks

play12:43

of training with the device

play12:45

it works much like the children's pin

play12:47

impression toy but instead of pin the

play12:49

device delivers electric stimuli to the

play12:52

tongue we've done testing using the

play12:54

device in an mri machine to see how the

play12:56

brain lights up when non-seeing persons

play12:59

are using the device the research has

play13:01

discovered that the brain uses the same

play13:04

regions in the visual cortex that a

play13:06

sighted person would with their eyes

play13:09

this phenomenon works not only with the

play13:11

tongue-based brain port

play13:12

but also a similar auditory-based system

play13:16

it's the same locations whether you're

play13:18

looking with the tongue-based device you

play13:21

know presenting a video signal to the

play13:22

tongue or if you're presenting the

play13:25

visual information through an audio

play13:27

signal the plasticity of the brain gives

play13:30

researchers hope of finding ways to

play13:32

overcome blindness by delivering signals

play13:34

directly to the visual cortex blindness

play13:37

however occurs in many different ways

play13:39

along the optical and neural pathways

play13:41

many of these causes have cures while

play13:44

others remain elusive

play13:46

in 2006 the world health organization

play13:49

recognized that uncorrected refractive

play13:52

error is the leading cause of visual

play13:54

impairment in the world

play13:56

so what is refractive error

play13:59

eyeballs are not always perfectly shaped

play14:02

when the eyeball is longer than the

play14:03

focal length of the crystalline lens

play14:05

then the individual is said to be myopic

play14:08

or near-sighted

play14:10

and if the eyeball is shorter then the

play14:12

individual is said to be hyperopic or

play14:15

sighted

play14:16

both conditions cause blur rendering the

play14:18

individual handicap from not being able

play14:20

to see clearly close up or far away

play14:23

the most important cause of vision

play14:26

impairment is uncorrected refractive

play14:28

error

play14:28

it prevents children from learning

play14:31

it prevents adults from working and it

play14:33

prevents older people from enjoying the

play14:35

quality of their lives

play14:37

it seems so simple to those of us who

play14:40

have the resources to get a pair of

play14:42

glasses

play14:43

many people underestimated the

play14:45

importance of uncorrected refractive

play14:47

error the world health organization

play14:49

measure how your vision is when you

play14:51

present to a clinic and that has made

play14:53

uncorrected refractive error the leading

play14:55

cause of visual impairment in the world

play14:57

and the second leading cause of

play15:00

blindness in the world

play15:03

joseph is a young boy in mexico we're

play15:05

seeing the world differently thanks to

play15:07

his first pair of glasses

play15:12

[Music]

play15:23

is

play15:28

[Music]

play15:40

the number of individuals with

play15:41

refractive error is significant

play15:44

there are 37 percent of elderly

play15:47

worldwide today that have uncorrected

play15:49

vision

play15:50

and associated with that are slips trips

play15:53

and falls that can cost the medical

play15:55

industry

play15:56

uh billions and billions of dollars 30

play15:59

of children today have uncorrected

play16:02

vision the statistics are really

play16:03

astounding there are about 7.5 billion

play16:06

people who live in this world

play16:08

and

play16:09

one third of them it's 2.5 billion

play16:12

are uncorrected and with their poor

play16:15

vision

play16:16

and this is huge this is probably one of

play16:18

the biggest handicaps in the world

play16:20

and you know out of the 2.5 billion we

play16:22

believe that 80 of them which is about

play16:25

2.2 billion live in emerging countries

play16:28

it affects people economically in a

play16:29

whole variety of ways for young children

play16:31

it could affect their educational

play16:33

attainment for adults in almost every

play16:35

country it could affect their ability to

play16:37

do work the cost to global productivity

play16:39

due to uncorrected refractive error is

play16:42

272 billion dollars per year now in a

play16:46

world where we're talking about

play16:47

trillions of dollars of global

play16:48

productivity that doesn't sound like a

play16:51

huge number but for the amount that it

play16:53

would cost to fix the problem which is

play16:55

only in the tens of billions would be

play16:57

worth the investment if we could find a

play16:59

way to corral those resources necessary

play17:01

to build up the system it's much cheaper

play17:03

for our world to actually address the

play17:05

issue of uncorrected refractive error

play17:08

than to leave intensities so thousand

play17:10

factory workers 100 of them with the

play17:12

problem you spend 100 per worker that's

play17:14

a 10 000 investment if the factory is

play17:17

producing a million dollars worth of

play17:18

product a year and you can suddenly add

play17:20

10 to that that's a hundred thousand

play17:23

dollars return year on year for that

play17:25

investment we examined about 300 workers

play17:28

and then because they were very highly

play17:30

unionized and are paid on productivity

play17:32

they had excellent productivity recalls

play17:35

which we had access to and that became

play17:36

the baseline and then we gave them

play17:39

glasses

play17:40

we went back three months later we did

play17:42

two assessments one we talked to the

play17:44

patients to their wives and and overall

play17:47

they were absolutely happy with wearing

play17:49

the glasses the wife was saying the

play17:50

husband is now more productive he's at

play17:52

home he's reading papers he's not

play17:54

running off from the house there was a

play17:56

better marital harmony happening

play17:59

and then on the factory side we looked

play18:00

at the production records

play18:02

there was a 13 percent jump in

play18:04

productivity for a 10 investment so

play18:08

subsequently when the management saw

play18:10

this

play18:11

they were literally forcing us to look

play18:13

at all the 3000 employees

play18:15

so because it's like a no-brainer the

play18:17

reason vision care is important to

play18:18

employers is it's a benefit first of all

play18:20

that's highly valued by their employees

play18:22

it's it's a fairly low cost but high

play18:25

value benefit

play18:26

you need to be able to see to do your

play18:27

job you need to be able to see to be a

play18:29

productive member of society healthy

play18:31

eyesight is important to having a

play18:33

fulfilling life and being productive at

play18:35

work the refractive error is not only

play18:37

limited to near or far vision

play18:39

some individuals suffer from astigmatism

play18:42

which is caused by an irregularly shaped

play18:44

cornea crystalline lens or a combination

play18:47

of both that produces two focal points

play18:50

on the retina

play18:52

individuals that have uncorrected

play18:53

astigmatism have difficulty seeing fine

play18:56

detail because the image they see is

play18:58

blurry whether near or far

play19:01

then there is the condition that

play19:03

eventually affects most of us if we're

play19:05

lucky to live long enough the

play19:07

second major problem the human being has

play19:11

had with vision

play19:12

is called presbyopia presbyopia is a

play19:16

major

play19:17

scourge for people

play19:19

the hardening of the crystalline lens

play19:20

causes presbyopia

play19:22

now when we're young this lens can

play19:24

actually change shape it's very soft

play19:26

and there's muscles in the eye that can

play19:29

make this lens change the shape and by

play19:31

doing that it can change the first focus

play19:33

of the eye so we can see up close when

play19:36

we need to or we can see into the far

play19:37

distance if we need to

play19:39

the problem is as we get older this lens

play19:41

gets harder so it can no longer change

play19:44

shape you can tell the age of a person

play19:46

by when they need reading glasses

play19:48

so if your friend pulls out a pair of

play19:50

reading glasses

play19:51

you know they're 45. presbyopia can be a

play19:54

life-changing situation i've seen people

play19:56

who go out of jobs because they don't

play19:58

have

play19:59

near vision and then when they go out of

play20:01

job when they're 45 or 50 and they have

play20:03

another 25 30 productive years ahead of

play20:05

them it's very sad which can be simply

play20:08

solved by a pair of reading glasses

play20:10

glasses or spectacles are used to

play20:12

correct the refractive errors that an

play20:13

individual may have

play20:15

eyeglasses have a rich history in form

play20:18

and function and style

play20:21

and in technology started in we believe

play20:24

1286

play20:26

it probably started from a magnifier on

play20:28

a handle

play20:30

some very clever lay person put two of

play20:32

those together and join the tops of the

play20:35

handles with a rivet

play20:37

and you were able to hold them and look

play20:40

through them

play20:41

now that person probably wanted to keep

play20:43

it secret make a profit from it

play20:46

20 years later 1306

play20:49

giordano di revolta

play20:51

in a sermon they talked about eyeglasses

play20:53

oki ali

play20:55

brought to the world 20 years earlier

play20:58

and this really changed a lot of things

play21:01

and then by the time we have

play21:03

guttenberg's press

play21:06

and the demand for more ability to read

play21:09

and the combination of spectacles

play21:11

and printing changed literacy of the

play21:14

world

play21:15

and we see even through the 1400s

play21:18

tens of thousands of pairs of eyeglasses

play21:21

shipped from venice shipped from

play21:23

florence all around the known world

play21:26

so eyeglasses have a very rich history

play21:29

and it started with someone's really

play21:31

good idea although we think of glasses

play21:34

as things that we

play21:36

see with

play21:37

but they have evolved to become a

play21:39

fashion accessory

play21:41

and therefore

play21:42

people care almost as much as how they

play21:45

are seen

play21:46

or look with these devices as they are

play21:51

looking through them we're in an

play21:52

interesting industry because it combines

play21:54

clinical with high fashion we help

play21:56

people see but we also help them feel

play21:59

better and look better and feel better

play22:01

about themselves the fashion component

play22:03

of vision correction is critical

play22:06

you are going to wear a pair of glasses

play22:07

and you want to look good in what you're

play22:09

wearing and so we're really the only

play22:11

part of healthcare that marries that

play22:13

clinical aspect of taking care of your

play22:15

eyes with a high fashion aspect of

play22:18

looking good while you're doing that the

play22:20

convergence of the medical necessity in

play22:23

eyewear and fashion and trend

play22:26

really started to take hold i would say

play22:29

back in the mid 1900s with hollywood

play22:32

actors and actresses using eyewear as

play22:34

their fashion accessory and movies that

play22:37

they were shooting one of the most

play22:40

popular and well-known scenes is audrey

play22:42

hepburn from breakfast at tiffany with a

play22:44

classic wayfarer styling there's

play22:46

probably not a movie today that you

play22:48

can't watch that doesn't have a popular

play22:51

either optical frame or sunglass that's

play22:54

featured somewhere in the film that

play22:56

really started a whole trend towards

play22:58

emerging infusing the medical necessity

play23:01

with the fashion world and bringing that

play23:03

to the consumers today the old stigma of

play23:06

being called four eyes is no longer a

play23:08

part of mainstream society it has

play23:10

changed dramatically number one

play23:13

the i would call them ugly frames that

play23:15

existed at that time

play23:16

have undergone major overhaul so a lot

play23:18

of design is now in a lot of fashion

play23:21

that's number one number two i think

play23:23

today for a lot of sports it's almost

play23:25

becoming mandatory to wear eyeglasses if

play23:28

you are in cycling or other sports where

play23:30

you really like to have some protection

play23:32

for your eyes be it normal sun lenses or

play23:34

clear lenses or sport lenses or

play23:37

corrective lenses so the stigma is kind

play23:39

of gone there are many many examples now

play23:42

of how acceptable it is to to need

play23:46

glasses and we even see young people

play23:48

today

play23:48

buying optical frames

play23:51

and not even needing a prescription but

play23:53

just really wearing them to change the

play23:55

way they're perceived by others glasses

play23:58

have developed beyond simply correcting

play23:59

vision

play24:00

wearable technology allows the wearer to

play24:03

collect data whether it's personal

play24:05

biometrics or feedback based on their

play24:07

location or activity this data can be

play24:10

used to monitor a specific healthcare

play24:12

issue or as a trigger in an early

play24:14

warning system by utilizing an existing

play24:17

aesthetic of the of eyewear you have the

play24:20

opportunity to

play24:21

at the same time that you're correcting

play24:23

vision

play24:24

you're also collecting a health aspect

play24:27

of their data

play24:28

and you're already in the clinical world

play24:30

because you're taking care of vision

play24:31

care which is part of a health record

play24:33

so you're crossing all these different

play24:34

boundaries at the same time advances in

play24:36

eyewear are not limited to new digital

play24:38

technology

play24:40

with better understanding of light

play24:42

science is reducing our health risk

play24:44

brought about by modern technology we've

play24:46

had all these new sources of

play24:48

illumination enter our world backlit

play24:50

screens on things like our televisions

play24:52

our computers our tablets and our

play24:54

smartphones the average person is

play24:56

exposing themselves to devices four to

play24:58

six hours a day well that's four to six

play25:01

hours of hev light that you wouldn't

play25:03

naturally have we're talking about the

play25:05

wavelength of light between 400 and 500

play25:08

nanometers so that encompasses blue

play25:11

indigo and violet the shorter the

play25:13

wavelength of light is the more energy

play25:15

it has the more energy it has the more

play25:17

damage it does to our tissues so we need

play25:19

to attenuate that this blue light is

play25:21

also affecting our sleep cycles we know

play25:24

that digital eye strain has surpassed

play25:26

carpal tunnel syndrome as the biggest

play25:28

complaint in the workplace

play25:30

we know that sleep disorders and

play25:32

sleep-related disorders are on the rise

play25:35

we know that there's a whole host of

play25:37

broader health issues that are

play25:39

increasing exponentially that can all be

play25:41

traced back to the disruption of sleep

play25:43

eyeglass manufacturers have solutions to

play25:45

block this blue light much like they do

play25:48

currently for ultraviolet there's two

play25:50

main approaches to protective lens

play25:52

products right now when it comes to blue

play25:54

light the first approach is to create a

play25:56

lens coating which will selectively

play25:58

deflect blue light wavelengths off the

play26:00

surface of the lens the second approach

play26:03

is to infuse the monomer of the lens

play26:05

with a dye or pigment which will help

play26:07

absorb the blue light as it passes

play26:09

through this blue light and uv

play26:11

protection in eyewear is much like seat

play26:13

belts in a car

play26:15

they only work if individuals wear them

play26:17

there's a heightened level of

play26:19

sensitivity of awareness by consumers

play26:21

today that you don't go outside when the

play26:23

sun is shining without a proper spf you

play26:26

certainly don't send your kids to the

play26:28

beach without wearing sunscreen but it's

play26:31

interesting to note that only 20

play26:33

of children are protecting their eyes

play26:35

from the harmful glare and rays of the

play26:38

sun uv damage does a tremendous amount

play26:42

impact the eyes at a very young age

play26:44

about 85 percent of all the damage you

play26:46

do is done before the age of 10 and that

play26:48

exposure to uv can cause cataracts

play26:52

a cataract is the clouding of the

play26:54

crystalline lens that occurs with age a

play26:57

long-term exposure to uv radiation our

play27:00

lens filters out much of the blue light

play27:04

and that's the reason we often develop

play27:05

cataracts as we grow older because the

play27:07

lens has been filtering out a lot a lot

play27:09

of the bluer shorter wavelengths and

play27:12

it's

play27:13

virtually an inevitability of growing

play27:15

older that we're going to develop

play27:16

cataract in some form or another

play27:18

worldwide 20 million individuals are

play27:20

blind due to cataracts

play27:23

the majority of those individuals live

play27:25

in developing countries developing

play27:27

country context

play27:28

when one person is handicapped there's

play27:30

at least another person has to give up

play27:33

what they are doing to take care of this

play27:34

person if somebody

play27:37

can't see at all or can't see in any way

play27:40

it's effective so they have two

play27:41

cataracts then they are not socially

play27:44

contributing and somebody has to stay

play27:46

home and take care of them it's usually

play27:48

a girl so the girl doesn't get to go to

play27:50

school and so her life is blighted by

play27:54

that absence of education and it

play27:56

cascades through her family because she

play27:59

hasn't had the education and you get a

play28:01

cascading effect

play28:02

from an avoidable issue that we could

play28:05

solve so easily well cataract surgery is

play28:08

the miracle of sight because it takes

play28:10

patients who have slowly lost their

play28:12

visual acuity

play28:14

and

play28:15

it restores vision often without the

play28:17

need for glasses cataract surgery is the

play28:19

most commonly performed surgery in the

play28:22

united states so almost everyone knows

play28:25

somebody else who has had cataract

play28:27

surgery and virtually every cataract

play28:30

surgery is a good experience we have the

play28:32

ability now to pick an intraocular lens

play28:34

that will correct refractive errors so

play28:37

it's a fantastic operation it's

play28:39

rewarding not only for the patient but

play28:40

for the doctor because the patients the

play28:43

next day actually see often perfectly

play28:46

taking out a cataract and someone who

play28:48

can't see

play28:49

can turn their life around in 24 hours a

play28:52

phenomenal 24-hour medical miracle

play28:55

there are some countries where the

play28:56

backlog of unoperated cataracts is huge

play28:59

because there's no one around to do the

play29:01

operation one method of overcoming the

play29:03

deficit of surgeons in the developing

play29:05

world is vision brigades that bring

play29:07

qualified ophthalmologists to the

play29:10

countries in need to perform the

play29:11

surgeries we've been coming down to

play29:13

honduras for the last 20 years or so

play29:16

and

play29:17

my goal for the country is just to do

play29:19

what i can to get rid of the backlog of

play29:22

50 000 people that are cataract blind in

play29:25

this country the volunteer work that dr

play29:27

kozawski and the other surgeons do in

play29:29

honduras and in other developing

play29:31

countries is humanitarianism

play29:34

at its very finest

play29:35

their efforts however are not enough

play29:38

developing human resources in every

play29:40

country and area in need

play29:43

because the only way to solve the

play29:44

problem is to train the people

play29:47

who do the work in the societies to

play29:49

advantage the people one organization is

play29:52

doing just that orbis is a

play29:54

non-governmental organization started in

play29:56

1982 with the vision to prevent

play29:58

blindness around the world the whole

play30:00

idea was to

play30:01

mobilize the training resources to the

play30:05

eye care professional in their own

play30:06

countries with their within their own

play30:08

hospital with their own patients so

play30:11

that's why the dc-10 was being a fully

play30:13

equipped eye hospital self-contained

play30:15

state-of-the-art facility it is not

play30:17

about bringing some skilled surgeon who

play30:20

can do hundred or thousands of surgery

play30:22

it is about giving them the ability to

play30:24

do

play30:25

more surgeries after we leave and being

play30:27

able to train their colleagues in the

play30:29

future

play30:30

this type of training provides the skill

play30:32

set in each country to deal with ongoing

play30:34

eye health care whether it is cataract

play30:37

or other causes of blindness

play30:40

the

play30:41

corneal diseases are

play30:44

quite common the cornea is that

play30:46

transparent layer in front of the pupil

play30:49

that protects the eye and forms the

play30:51

first lens in the optical system of the

play30:53

eye the transparent membrane is loaded

play30:56

with nerve fibers and is the most

play30:58

sensitive tissue in the body being 300

play31:00

to 600 times the sensitivity of skin

play31:04

due to its exposure to the environment

play31:06

it's susceptible to injury and a variety

play31:09

of diseases most of the corneal

play31:11

blindness occurs in the developing world

play31:15

for instance bacterial ulcers

play31:18

are 10 times as common

play31:20

in africa

play31:22

compared to here

play31:24

we live in

play31:25

relatively clean countries

play31:28

with

play31:30

antibiotics antivirals antifungals

play31:33

readily available

play31:35

and

play31:36

we don't have

play31:38

that much problems with infections in

play31:41

the developing world they don't have eye

play31:43

banks

play31:44

they don't have donor corneas

play31:48

in addition it is very expensive for eye

play31:51

banks to process because they have to

play31:53

test for

play31:54

hiv and

play31:56

hepatitis and tb and all kinds of

play32:00

diseases and conditions most of time an

play32:03

eye bank will recover the cornea that's

play32:05

the outer layer of the eye process it

play32:07

evaluate it and make sure it's safe for

play32:09

transplant and then we distribute it to

play32:11

a surgeon an ophthalmologist trained in

play32:13

corneal transplant surgery and they will

play32:15

do the

play32:16

transplant procedure we want to make

play32:18

sure that the eye tissue that we provide

play32:20

is safe for transplantation in some

play32:23

cultures people feel that they need the

play32:25

eyes to see god and therefore donor

play32:29

materials are

play32:31

non-existent

play32:32

when we came and started high banking

play32:35

everybody told me india i banking forget

play32:38

it

play32:39

nobody donates size

play32:41

corneal transplants don't work in indian

play32:44

ice

play32:45

indian eyes are not suitable for corneal

play32:47

transplant and today

play32:49

we are one of the five biggest i banks

play32:52

in the world

play32:54

and perhaps the second largest corneal

play32:56

transplantation center in the world

play32:58

collaborative research between the

play33:00

university of pittsburgh and the lv

play33:02

prasad eye institute in india are

play33:05

advancing the use of stem cell

play33:06

transplantation to repair damaged

play33:09

corneas

play33:10

unfortunately we don't have as many

play33:12

donor corneal tissues as we would need

play33:14

so according to one recent estimate

play33:17

of the eye bank association of india

play33:19

there are around 140 000 cornea blind

play33:22

individuals who are awaiting a corneal

play33:24

transplant stem cells are harvested from

play33:27

the patient and cultured for 30 days and

play33:30

then used to promote restoration and

play33:32

healing of the damaged cornea so we use

play33:34

the patient's own cells

play33:36

and after we have created this defect

play33:39

we use the gel

play33:41

which is basically a biological glue and

play33:45

the stem cells are essentially laden in

play33:46

this gel

play33:47

so once the stem cells get incorporated

play33:50

into the corneal stroma

play33:52

they start to eat away the scars so they

play33:54

slowly eat away the scar the cells the

play33:56

stem cells that do all the magic are

play33:58

basically from the same patient so there

play34:00

is no chance that the patient in future

play34:02

can reject these cells

play34:04

and they have actually simplified the

play34:06

technique from a very complex laboratory

play34:09

oriented

play34:11

technique into a simple in the eye kind

play34:13

of technique

play34:14

which any ophthalmologist in the world

play34:16

can apply

play34:18

at the completion of this procedure a

play34:20

bandage contact lens is placed on the

play34:22

treated eye to keep the gel securely in

play34:25

place

play34:26

contacts were originally developed in

play34:28

the late 1800s to protect the cornea

play34:31

from inward turned eyelashes a condition

play34:33

called trichiasis

play34:35

during the 20th century the contact lens

play34:38

evolved to include refractive correction

play34:41

45 years ago when contact lenses were

play34:44

first commercialized

play34:46

no one could imagine

play34:48

the availability today

play34:51

for just about anyone regardless of

play34:54

their refractive error needs

play34:56

real advantages for contact lenses are

play34:59

that it doesn't change your natural

play35:01

appearance

play35:02

the the vision is clear

play35:05

it's bright

play35:06

it's natural you have a natural field of

play35:10

view that's especially important in any

play35:12

kind of sports activities or for example

play35:15

when when driving the most important

play35:18

steps

play35:20

in

play35:21

caring for contact lenses

play35:23

is that just the proper hygiene of

play35:26

washing hands

play35:28

says it was from a contact lens she just

play35:30

doesn't know when or how it started it

play35:32

was very fast two days in

play35:36

all corneas

play35:41

contacts are safe and reliable but

play35:43

proper sanitation habits are required

play35:46

contact lens technology is moving

play35:48

forward to be able to do biometric

play35:50

measuring so that diabetics will no

play35:52

longer have to

play35:53

prick themselves or even use saliva

play35:56

they'll be able to determine what their

play35:57

glucose levels are strictly from their

play35:59

contact lens that they're wearing and

play36:01

contact lenses may have the same

play36:02

technology embedded in them that google

play36:04

glass has today using a prism we have

play36:07

site recognition we have telescope

play36:10

possibilities we have all sorts of

play36:12

things when we put the lens on the eye

play36:15

close to the pupil

play36:17

nearer to the retina where we can

play36:19

manipulate the optics and then combine

play36:21

that with spectacles to create

play36:23

systems of interaction

play36:26

between spectacles and contact lenses

play36:28

and vision so there's a massively

play36:30

interesting future

play36:32

in vision correction then we have drug

play36:34

delivery possibilities and contact

play36:36

lenses

play36:37

a drug eluding contact lens could have

play36:40

many uses

play36:41

in theory it could be used to deliver

play36:44

drugs to the body

play36:47

the drugs would leak into the eye from

play36:50

the contact lens and from the eye into

play36:52

the rest of the body

play36:54

but one of the great advantages is that

play36:57

it would allow you to achieve very high

play36:59

local concentrations of drug

play37:02

in the eye

play37:03

currently we are developing this contact

play37:06

lens for use in glaucoma

play37:08

because there's such a pressing need

play37:11

glaucoma is the third major cause of

play37:13

blindness around the globe

play37:15

pass through heredity or when the eye

play37:17

sustains an injury

play37:18

untreated glaucoma can result in

play37:21

irreversible damage to the optic nerve

play37:23

it will destroy the optic nerve

play37:26

it'll whittle away at it until you start

play37:28

losing your peripheral field of vision

play37:30

and it narrows down in a tunnel

play37:33

fashion until you finally snuff it out

play37:36

and you go blind what happens in the

play37:38

various forms of glaucoma as we

play37:40

understand it today is that a higher

play37:43

than normal pressure presses on the

play37:45

nerve and causes the nerve to slowly die

play37:47

off over time normally your eye produces

play37:50

a fluid in the eye called aqueous humor

play37:53

which is produced inside the eye and

play37:55

serves in many ways as the blood supply

play37:58

or the oxygen supply to the clear

play38:00

structures of the eye like your lens and

play38:02

your cornea and that fluid is produced

play38:04

and then drains out of the eye

play38:06

continuously throughout the day

play38:09

and you run into problems when the

play38:10

natural drain can't keep up with the

play38:12

amount of fluid that is produced and

play38:15

when that happens the pressure rises

play38:17

just like an overflowing bathtub when we

play38:19

treat glaucoma we

play38:22

generally try to lower the pressure as

play38:24

much as possible to a range at which

play38:26

that optic nerve is no longer continuing

play38:28

to be damaged and we can do that

play38:31

by

play38:32

medications some of which reduce the

play38:35

amount of fluid made in the eye

play38:37

other medications enhance the flow of

play38:39

fluid out of the eye and when those

play38:41

things no longer work we go in and can

play38:44

do surgery and generally the surgeries

play38:46

that we do

play38:48

either fashion a new drain

play38:50

to bypass the dysfunctional one or we

play38:53

enhance the drain that already exists

play38:57

if you visited your doctor for an annual

play38:59

or bi-annual eye exam

play39:01

you've experienced the device that blows

play39:03

a puff of air into your eye the device

play39:06

is measuring the pressure of your

play39:07

eyeball but there is more to the

play39:09

detection and management of glaucoma but

play39:11

when we're diagnosing dog glaucoma you

play39:13

need to look at a lot of things the

play39:15

first thing we need to look at are what

play39:16

are your risk factors now age is the

play39:19

major risk factor so glaucoma can affect

play39:21

people of any age but normally it

play39:23

affects people who are older so in

play39:25

australia with a predominantly caucasian

play39:27

population about three percent of the

play39:28

people over the age of 50 have glaucoma

play39:31

but if you look at people over the age

play39:33

of 80 10 will have glaucoma

play39:36

another very important thing is race we

play39:38

know that certain ethnic groups are more

play39:41

predisposed to certain types of glaucoma

play39:44

then we look at your family history

play39:46

which is critically important because

play39:48

glaucoma is an inheritable disease

play39:50

regardless of your family history or

play39:52

race you should have your eyes checked

play39:54

regularly not only for glaucoma but for

play39:57

diseases that affect the retina

play40:00

i'm a former truck driver

play40:03

i'm recovering from a detached retina

play40:06

i had

play40:08

started

play40:09

experiencing flashes

play40:11

and a curtain coming in from the side of

play40:14

my vision and it progressively got worse

play40:17

until i experienced total blindness in

play40:20

this eye

play40:21

what happened to eddie is that the

play40:23

vitreous humor pulled away from and tore

play40:26

his retina the cavity

play40:28

that we have in the posterior chamber is

play40:31

known as the vitreous humor

play40:33

now the victory is is a part of this

play40:36

architecture or skeleton of the eye

play40:38

but it also has the optical properties

play40:41

because it's transparent and allows the

play40:43

light to go through more frequently the

play40:45

vitreous will separate

play40:47

from the retina as we get older and then

play40:49

we start seeing these little floaters in

play40:52

front of our eyes that we follow and

play40:54

they're still there these floaters are

play40:57

actually the places where the vitreous

play40:59

was adherent to the optic nerve the

play41:01

macula or the retina periphery

play41:04

in separation sometimes it'll tear the

play41:06

retina

play41:07

and if we do get a retinal tear we are

play41:10

to get a retinal detachment

play41:12

i went basically

play41:14

nine days before i received medical

play41:16

attention

play41:18

by that time the destruction

play41:20

in my eye was

play41:22

quite severe

play41:24

i've had a total of three surgeries now

play41:26

part of the modern treatment of rental

play41:29

pathology if there isn't here we treat

play41:30

it with the laser to seal it and prevent

play41:33

the detachment so if you seal the tear

play41:35

with the laser before the retina

play41:36

detaches that eye will go back to 2020

play41:39

but if you detach the red and it's been

play41:40

detached for two three months which is

play41:42

typical in these third world countries

play41:45

when in spite of the fact that you are

play41:46

able to

play41:47

reattach the retina visual acidity will

play41:49

be very poor

play41:50

they have no

play41:52

idea how the recovery will

play41:55

ultimately be

play41:56

i've asked them several times

play41:59

they just say there's no way of

play42:01

guessing it

play42:02

there are many conditions that can cause

play42:04

the retina to succumb to damage and

play42:06

failure so when the light rays come in

play42:09

through the pupil they focus smack onto

play42:11

the area of the retina known as the

play42:13

macula and in the center of the

play42:15

immaculate phobia is the most important

play42:17

structure of the eye so most of the

play42:20

visual acuity is focused in the macula

play42:23

underneath the macula there's a pink

play42:25

tissue known as the pigment epithelium

play42:27

and macular degeneration is a

play42:29

degeneration of the pigment epithelium

play42:31

it's called amd or age-related macular

play42:33

degeneration the important thing to know

play42:35

about macular degeneration is it affects

play42:37

the center of your vision so when you're

play42:39

looking out with macular degeneration if

play42:41

you're looking at someone's face you

play42:42

can't see the most important details

play42:45

their smile their nose their eyes and

play42:47

you sort of see what's around me become

play42:49

very debilitating and generally

play42:50

immaculate degeneration affects both

play42:52

eyes and so you're walking around with

play42:54

just your peripheral vision in the

play42:56

process of aging molecules

play42:59

of this degenerative material known as

play43:01

lipofusion accumulate in the pigment

play43:04

epithelium and this material degrades

play43:07

the quality of the rods and the cones

play43:09

that are overlying

play43:12

that alone reduces the visual acuity but

play43:14

it also creates a window

play43:17

through the pigment epithelium for blood

play43:19

vessels to grow into the retina

play43:22

and these are known as neovascular

play43:24

membranes these membranes can bleed

play43:27

and they can produce fluid and because

play43:29

they are right below the phobia the

play43:31

vision is greatly diminished there are

play43:33

two forms of macular degeneration

play43:36

wet and dry

play43:38

the dry type is the more common type

play43:39

there's different types but geographic

play43:41

atrophy is the predominant type and

play43:43

that's sort of the cells just go through

play43:44

an aging process and they get worn out

play43:46

the more devastating type to vision is

play43:49

what's called wet macular degeneration

play43:51

and that's when there's a break in the

play43:54

membrane or the layer between the retina

play43:58

and the choroid which is the

play44:00

the blood vessels behind the eye and if

play44:02

you get a break there you can get some

play44:04

new blood vessels that grow in and

play44:05

that's called exudative macular

play44:07

degeneration when you get either blood

play44:08

or fluid and that causes a very acute

play44:11

massive drop in vision

play44:13

i gave up playing cards because i

play44:15

couldn't see the cards

play44:17

and i gave up reading i just really went

play44:19

to all audio books because i really

play44:22

couldn't read well enough

play44:24

fast enough to enjoy it

play44:27

but each year it got worse

play44:29

i saw less each year than i saw the year

play44:31

before

play44:32

dan was lucky enough to qualify for

play44:34

unique implant made specifically for

play44:36

macular degeneration the solution for

play44:38

the

play44:39

patient who has the amd

play44:42

is

play44:42

using the periphery of the retina and

play44:45

bringing the image to places that are

play44:48

not detected by the molecular

play44:51

degeneration since the periphery is

play44:54

resolution is not as good as a center

play44:57

then we have to magnify the image

play45:00

the telescope is doing this job once we

play45:03

bring the

play45:04

image to the delivery the patient can

play45:06

gain

play45:08

all the details the brain has to

play45:11

accept these differences

play45:14

in in the scene ability i

play45:17

now can ski i can read or read on the

play45:20

computer easily i can write letters i

play45:22

can fill out checks fill out all kinds

play45:24

of paperwork

play45:26

with this

play45:27

telescope because it makes things very

play45:29

visible

play45:31

it's amazing the telescope is a great

play45:33

example of analog technology that is

play45:35

being created to help aid amd patients

play45:38

but researchers are hoping to stop the

play45:40

degeneration completely with stem cells

play45:43

advanced platform for the retina that

play45:44

we're developing is a layer of stem

play45:47

cells which is put on a synthetic

play45:49

membrane

play45:50

the advantage of this is that if you

play45:53

just inject cells we believe that are

play45:55

not in a sheet that are not oriented

play45:58

properly the top side being the top and

play46:00

the bottom side being the bottom then

play46:02

they don't work as well so you can put

play46:04

them in in a layer oriented properly

play46:07

they'll function much better and that's

play46:09

the premises of our approach these stem

play46:11

cells would replace and take on the role

play46:14

of the damaged photoreceptor cells

play46:16

restoring the patient's vision

play46:18

another form of macular degeneration is

play46:21

quickly becoming the leading cause of

play46:22

blindness in asia risk factor for myopic

play46:25

macular degeneration is increasing

play46:28

myopia and that's because increasing

play46:30

myopia causes a lengthening of the

play46:32

eyeball and when the eyeball lengthens

play46:35

the retina is stretched and becomes thin

play46:37

and damaged and even other parts of the

play46:39

eye are affected primopia increases the

play46:42

risk of cataract

play46:44

at least three times

play46:46

the risk of glaucoma

play46:48

about five times

play46:50

and not only that myopic macular

play46:52

degeneration has been found to be the

play46:55

number one cause of new cases of

play46:56

blindness in shanghai china and also a

play46:59

major cause of

play47:01

blindness in japan

play47:03

i would say myopia is epidemic in asia

play47:06

in in school-aged children more kids

play47:08

have it and the ones who have it have

play47:10

more of it and if you think of myopia as

play47:13

being ultimately associated with serious

play47:15

comorbidities late in life so retinal

play47:18

detachment glaucoma you're setting up

play47:21

those children who have more severe

play47:24

nearsightedness to be at risk for

play47:26

potentially blinding eye diseases as

play47:28

adults so what we have done is we've

play47:31

looked at about 9 000 preschool children

play47:35

children who are six months to six years

play47:37

of age from four different racial ethnic

play47:41

groups african-americans hispanics

play47:44

non-hispanic whites and asians and what

play47:46

we found was that the highest rates of

play47:49

myopia nearsightedness were seen in

play47:52

asians and in african americans

play47:55

causes of myopia

play47:57

are probably both

play47:59

genetic and environmental it's very

play48:01

clear that nearsighted parents tend to

play48:04

have nearsighted children but this