Prompt Engineering Tutorial – Master ChatGPT and LLM Responses
5 Sept 202341:36

TLDRThe tutorial provides an insightful journey into prompt engineering, a field that has gained significant importance with the rise of artificial intelligence. Anu Kubo, a software developer and instructor, guides viewers through the intricacies of crafting prompts to elicit the most effective responses from large language models (LLMs) like Chat GPT. The course covers the fundamentals of AI, the evolution of language models, and the significance of linguistics in prompt engineering. Kubo emphasizes the importance of clear, detailed instructions and adopting a persona to tailor responses to specific audiences. She also discusses best practices, such as iterative prompting and avoiding leading questions, and delves into advanced topics like zero-shot and few-shot prompting. The tutorial highlights the concept of AI hallucinations, where models produce unusual outputs due to misinterpretation of data, and introduces text embeddings, which are instrumental in representing textual information for AI processing. The comprehensive guide concludes with practical examples and encourages users to experiment with creating their own text embeddings using the OpenAI API, empowering them to harness the full potential of LLMs.


  • πŸ“š Prompt engineering is a career that involves crafting and optimizing prompts to improve the interaction between humans and AI.
  • πŸ’‘ Anu Kubo explains that prompt engineering is crucial for maximizing productivity with large language models (LLMs) like chat GPT.
  • πŸš€ The importance of prompt engineering is highlighted by the fact that some companies pay up to $335,000 a year for professionals in this field.
  • πŸ€– Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, often using machine learning techniques.
  • πŸ“ˆ Machine learning uses training data to find patterns and predict outcomes, which is fundamental to how AI models like chat GPT function.
  • πŸ“ˆ Prompt engineering is useful because it helps control and direct the outputs of AI, which can be challenging even for their creators.
  • 🌐 Linguistics plays a key role in prompt engineering by providing an understanding of language nuances and structures, which are essential for crafting effective prompts.
  • 🧠 Language models are programs that learn from vast collections of text, enabling them to understand and generate human-like text based on patterns and structures.
  • πŸ“ˆ The history of language models includes significant developments like Eliza in the 60s and the evolution of GPT models from GPT-1 to GPT-4.
  • πŸ’‘ Good prompts are created with clear instructions, details, and a specific format, avoiding leading questions and limiting the scope for broad topics.
  • πŸ” Text embeddings and vectors are used to represent text in a format that can be processed by algorithms, capturing semantic information and enabling tasks like finding similar words.

Q & A

  • What is prompt engineering?

    -Prompt engineering is a career that involves human writing, refining, and optimizing prompts in a structured way to perfect the interaction between humans and AI to the highest degree possible. It also requires continuous monitoring of prompts to ensure their effectiveness as AI progresses.

  • Why is prompt engineering important in the field of AI?

    -Prompt engineering is important because it helps control and direct the outputs of AI, which can be challenging even for its architects. It ensures that AI provides the most accurate and relevant responses to user inputs.

  • What is the role of a prompt engineer?

    -A prompt engineer is responsible for creating and optimizing prompts to improve interaction with AI. They also maintain an up-to-date prompt library, report on findings, and act as a thought leader in the field of AI interaction.

  • What is the significance of linguistics in prompt engineering?

    -Linguistics is crucial in prompt engineering because understanding the nuances of language and how it is used in different contexts is key to crafting effective prompts. It helps in using a universally accepted grammar or language structure, which is more likely to return accurate results from the AI system.

  • How does machine learning work in the context of AI?

    -Machine learning works by using large amounts of training data that is analyzed for correlations and patterns. These patterns are then used to predict outcomes based on the training data provided. It's about feeding data into the model and training it to make correct guesses or categorizations.

  • What is the purpose of adopting a persona when writing prompts?

    -Adopting a persona helps ensure that the language model's output is relevant, useful, and consistent with the needs and preferences of the target audience. It's a powerful tool for developing effective language models that meet user needs.

  • What are zero-shot and few-shot prompting?

    -Zero-shot prompting is querying models like GPT without any explicit training examples for the task at hand. Few-shot prompting enhances the model with a few examples of the tasks via the prompt, avoiding retraining but providing more guidance than zero-shot prompting.

  • What are AI hallucinations?

    -AI hallucinations refer to unusual outputs that AI models can produce when they misinterpret data. They occur when the AI makes connections that are overly creative, resulting in inaccurate or fantastical responses.

  • How does text embedding help in prompt engineering?

    -Text embedding represents textual information in a format that can be easily processed by algorithms, especially deep learning models. It converts text prompts into high-dimensional vectors that capture semantic information, allowing for better comparison and understanding of text by AI.

  • What is the significance of specifying format in prompt engineering?

    -Specifying the format in prompt engineering helps the AI understand the desired output style, such as a summary, list, or detailed explanation. It ensures that the AI's response matches the user's expectations and requirements.

  • How can one interact with the GPT-4 model?

    -One can interact with the GPT-4 model by using the platform provided by OpenAI. Users can sign up, log in, and use the interface to create new chats, ask questions, and receive responses based on their prompts.

  • What are tokens in the context of interacting with GPT?

    -Tokens in the context of GPT are chunks of text that the model processes. A token is approximately four characters or 0.75 words for English text. Users are charged based on the number of tokens used in their interactions with the AI.



πŸš€ Introduction to Prompt Engineering and AI

Anu Kubo introduces the course on prompt engineering, explaining its importance in maximizing productivity with large language models (LLMs). She discusses the rise of prompt engineering due to AI advancements and emphasizes the need for continuous monitoring and updating of prompts. The course will cover AI basics, LLMs, text-to-image models, and various prompt engineering techniques, including zero-shot and few-shot prompting.


πŸ€– AI's Role in Personalized Learning

The script illustrates how AI can be used to enhance personalized learning experiences, such as acting as a spoken English teacher that corrects grammar and engages the learner with relevant questions. It also expands on the importance of linguistics in crafting effective prompts and the function of language models in understanding and generating human-like text.


πŸ“š The Evolution of Language Models

This section delves into the history of language models, starting with Eliza in the 1960s and progressing through to modern models like GPT. It discusses the evolution of natural language processing and the development of deep learning and neural networks, which have significantly improved language models' capabilities.


πŸ’‘ Prompt Engineering Mindset and chat GPT Usage

The paragraph discusses the mindset required for effective prompt engineering, drawing an analogy with effective Google searches. It provides a brief introduction to using chat GPT by OpenAI, including signing up, interacting with the platform, and using the API for more advanced applications.


πŸ” Best Practices in Prompt Engineering

The script outlines best practices for writing effective prompts, such as providing clear instructions, adopting a persona, using iterative prompting, avoiding leading questions, and limiting the scope for broad topics. It also provides examples of how to write clearer and more specific prompts to get better results from AI.


🎯 Advanced Prompting Techniques

The paragraph explores advanced prompting techniques like zero-shot and few-shot prompting, which allow the AI to understand and perform tasks with little to no prior examples. It also touches on AI hallucinations, which occur when AI misinterprets data, and the importance of text embeddings in representing textual information for AI processing.


🌟 Conclusion and Final Thoughts

The final paragraph recaps the course content, summarizing the key topics covered, including an introduction to AI, linguistics, language models, prompt engineering strategies, and advanced concepts like AI hallucinations and text embeddings. It concludes with a thank you note to the viewers.



πŸ’‘Prompt Engineering

Prompt engineering is the process of strategically formulating and refining prompts to elicit the most accurate and useful responses from AI, particularly large language models (LLMs). It involves understanding the AI's capabilities and structuring queries to guide the AI towards the desired output. In the video, Anu Kubo emphasizes the importance of prompt engineering in maximizing productivity with LLMs and improving interactions between humans and AI.

πŸ’‘Large Language Models (LLMs)

Large language models, or LLMs, are advanced AI systems designed to process and generate human-like text based on vast amounts of training data. They are capable of performing various language-related tasks, such as answering questions, summarizing texts, and even creating content. In the context of the video, LLMs like chat GPT are central to the discussion of prompt engineering strategies and their application.

πŸ’‘Zero-Shot Prompting

Zero-shot prompting is a technique where an AI model is asked to perform a task without being provided any specific examples of that task during the prompt. It relies on the model's pre-existing knowledge and understanding of language. The video illustrates this concept by asking the AI when Christmas is in America, expecting the model to use its general knowledge to answer the question.

πŸ’‘Few-Shot Prompting

Few-shot prompting enhances an AI model's performance on a task by providing it with a few examples during the prompt. This method allows the model to 'learn' from the examples and tailor its response more effectively. In the video, Anu Kubo demonstrates few-shot prompting by giving the AI examples of her favorite foods before asking for restaurant recommendations in Dubai.

πŸ’‘AI Hallucinations

AI hallucinations refer to the incorrect or imaginative outputs generated by AI models when they misinterpret or overinterpret data. This can occur when the AI fills in gaps in understanding with incorrect assumptions. The video uses the example of Google's Deep Dream to illustrate how AI hallucinations can produce unusual and sometimes humorous results, offering insight into the AI's thought processes.

πŸ’‘Text Embeddings

Text embeddings are a method in natural language processing where textual data is converted into numerical vectors that capture semantic meaning. These embeddings allow AI models to better understand and process language by representing words or phrases as points in a high-dimensional space. In the video, Anu Kubo discusses how text embeddings are used in prompt engineering to help AI models interpret and generate more accurate responses.


Linguistics is the scientific study of language and its structure, including aspects such as phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. It plays a crucial role in prompt engineering as understanding the nuances of language helps in crafting effective prompts. The video emphasizes the importance of linguistics in understanding how language is used in different contexts to achieve the best results from AI.

πŸ’‘Machine Learning

Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence that involves the use of data and algorithms to enable machines to learn from and make predictions or decisions without being explicitly programmed. In the context of the video, machine learning is fundamental to how LLMs function, as they analyze patterns in large datasets to generate responses.


In the context of prompt engineering, adopting a persona involves directing the AI to respond as if it were a specific character or individual with particular traits and preferences. This technique helps tailor the AI's responses to the needs and expectations of a particular audience. The video gives an example of writing a poem for a sister's graduation, where adopting the persona of a specific writer influences the style and content of the poem.


In the context of AI and natural language processing, tokens refer to the units of text that models process. Tokens can be words, characters, or subwords, and they are the basis for how AI models measure and charge for text processing. The video discusses the concept of tokens in relation to using chat GPT, explaining that prompts are charged per token and providing a tool for users to check their token usage.

πŸ’‘Best Practices

Best practices in prompt engineering involve a set of guidelines or strategies to create effective prompts that yield the most accurate and relevant AI responses. The video outlines several best practices, such as providing clear instructions, adopting a persona, specifying the format, using iterative prompting, and avoiding leading questions. These practices are crucial for optimizing interactions with AI and getting the desired outcomes.


Prompt engineering is a career that involves optimizing prompts to perfect human-AI interaction.

Prompt engineers are required to continuously monitor and update prompts as AI progresses.

Artificial intelligence simulates human intelligence processes but is not sentient.

Machine learning uses training data to analyze patterns and predict outcomes.

Prompt engineering is useful for controlling AI outputs and enhancing learning experiences.

Linguistics is key to prompt engineering as it helps in crafting effective prompts by understanding language nuances.

Language models are computer programs that learn from written text and generate human-like responses.

The history of language models began with Eliza, an early natural language processing program from the 1960s.

GPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer) models have evolved significantly since 2018, with GPT-3 and GPT-4 being the latest iterations.

Prompt engineering mindset involves writing clear instructions and adopting a persona for more effective AI responses.

Zero-shot prompting allows querying models without explicit training examples, while few-shot prompting provides examples for better responses.

AI hallucinations refer to unusual outputs produced when AI misinterprets data, offering insights into AI's thought processes.

Text embeddings represent textual information in a format that can be processed by algorithms, capturing semantic information.

Using text embeddings, similar words or texts can be found by comparing the numerical arrays representing them.

The course provides a comprehensive guide on prompt engineering, covering its importance, techniques, and applications in AI.

Anu Kubo teaches the latest techniques in prompt engineering to maximize productivity with large language models.

The importance of prompt engineering is highlighted by the high salaries companies offer for professionals in this field.

The course includes an introduction to using chat GPT by OpenAI, including how to sign up and interact with the platform.