Artificial Intelligence (AI) Interview Questions and Answers | AI Interview Preparation | Edureka

edureka!
11 Apr 2019106:08

TLDRIn this informative session, Lake Hoff from Edureka discusses essential artificial intelligence (AI) concepts and applications, focusing on interview preparation. Hoff explains the necessity of AI in structuring and analyzing vast amounts of data to foster business growth. He outlines the differences between AI, machine learning, and deep learning, emphasizing their roles in decision-making and problem-solving. Hoff also explores various AI applications, including Google's search engine, and delves into types of AI, such as reactive machines, limited memory AI, and self-aware AI. The discussion further covers domains of AI, including machine learning, neural networks, robotics, and natural language processing. Hoff also addresses the concept of the Turing test for assessing machine intelligence and the importance of reinforcement learning and Markov decision processes in AI's decision-making capabilities. The session concludes with practical examples, such as spam detection and sales forecasting, demonstrating AI's real-world applications.

Takeaways

  • ๐Ÿ“š Artificial Intelligence (AI) is crucial for structuring and analyzing the immense amount of data generated in the technical revolution to aid business growth.
  • ๐Ÿค– AI represents simulated intelligence in machines, aiming to mimic human behavior, while Machine Learning (ML) allows machines to make decisions without explicit programming, using data.
  • ๐Ÿง  Deep Learning involves artificial neural networks and is inspired by the human brain to solve complex problems, making it a subset of ML, which is in turn a subset of AI.
  • ๐Ÿ” Google's search engine is a common example of AI in daily use, providing quick and relevant search results through machine learning algorithms and deep neural networks.
  • ๐Ÿง Different types of AI include reactive machines, limited memory AI, theory of mind AI, self-aware AI, artificial narrow intelligence, and artificial general intelligence, with varying levels of implementation and theoretical understanding.
  • ๐Ÿ“ˆ AI domains encompass machine learning, neural networks, robotics, expert systems, fuzzy logic systems, and natural language processing, each with unique approaches to problem-solving.
  • ๐Ÿ“Š Types of machine learning are supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning, each used for different kinds of problems and data, from labeled datasets to unlabeled and reward-based learning.
  • ๐ŸŽ“ The Turing Test, proposed by Alan Turing, assesses a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behavior indistinguishable from a human, serving as a benchmark for AI intelligence.
  • ๐Ÿ”ง Tools like TensorFlow, PyTorch, and Pegasus are vital in the field of machine learning and deep learning, offering a range of functions to build better models.
  • ๐Ÿ›ก๏ธ Techniques to prevent overfitting in neural networks include cross-validation, providing more training data, removing irrelevant features, early stopping, regularization, and using ensemble methods like random forests.
  • ๐Ÿ›’ Targeted marketing uses machine learning to analyze customer interests and behavior, enabling companies to deliver personalized ads and offers, enhancing customer experience and sales.

Q & A

  • What is the primary reason for the need for AI in business?

    -The primary reason for the need for AI in business is to structure and analyze the immeasurable amount of data generated since the technical revolution, which helps in growing businesses by drawing useful insights.

  • How does AI differ from machine learning and deep learning?

    -AI represents simulated intelligence in machines, which means any robot or machine that can mimic human behavior. Machine learning is the practice of enabling machines to make decisions without explicit programming, focusing on using data to train machines. Deep learning is a process that uses artificial neural networks to solve complex problems, mimicking the human brain.

  • What is an example of AI used in daily life?

    -A common example of AI used in daily life is the Google search engine, which provides recommendations and relevant search results through machine learning algorithms and deep neural networks.

  • What are the different types of AI?

    -Different types of AI include reactive machines AI, limited memory AI, theory of mind AI, self-aware AI, artificial narrow intelligence, and artificial general intelligence. Reactive machines AI is based on present actions with no memory, limited memory AI has temporary memory storage, and the others are more advanced or hypothetical types not yet fully realized in the real world.

  • How is machine learning related to AI?

    -Machine learning is a subset of AI. AI makes use of machine learning algorithms and concepts to solve problems. Machine learning is a technique implemented in AI to enable machines to learn from data and make decisions or predictions.

  • What are the three types of machine learning?

    -The three types of machine learning are supervised learning, unsupervised learning, and reinforcement learning. Supervised learning uses labeled data, unsupervised learning uses unlabeled data to find patterns, and reinforcement learning involves an agent learning through trial and error by interacting with its environment.

  • What is Q learning in the context of reinforcement learning?

    -Q learning is a type of reinforcement learning algorithm where an agent learns the optimal policy from its past experiences, which are a sequence of action, state, and rewards. It helps the agent to determine the best actions to take in order to maximize the rewards.

  • How does deep learning work?

    -Deep learning works by mimicking the way our brain works, using neural networks. It involves layers of artificial neurons (perceptrons) that receive inputs, apply transformations and functions, and produce an output. The neural network typically consists of an input layer, multiple hidden layers where computations occur, and an output layer that provides the final result.

  • What is the purpose of the Turing test?

    -The Turing test is designed to determine whether or not a computer is capable of thinking like a human being. If a machine passes the Turing test, it is considered to have demonstrated human-like intelligence, being able to make decisions and interpret data autonomously.

  • What is the exploitation-exploration trade-off in reinforcement learning?

    -The exploitation-exploration trade-off in reinforcement learning refers to the balance an agent must strike between exploiting the known information to maximize current rewards (exploitation) and exploring new actions to discover potentially higher rewards (exploration).

  • How can overfitting in machine learning models be prevented?

    -Overfitting can be prevented through methods such as cross-validation, training on more data, removing irrelevant or redundant features, early stopping, regularization techniques like pruning or dropout, and using ensemble methods like random forests.

Outlines

00:00

๐Ÿค– Introduction to Artificial Intelligence and Key Concepts

This paragraph serves as an introduction to a session on artificial intelligence (AI), where Lake Hoff explains the importance of AI in today's data-driven world, especially for business growth. He outlines the session structure, which is divided into basic, intermediate, and scenario-based questions about AI, and elaborates on why AI is necessary for managing and extracting insights from the vast amounts of data generated since the technological revolution. The introduction sets the stage for a detailed discussion on the differences and applications of AI, machine learning, and deep learning.

05:01

๐ŸŒ Deep Dive into AI: Definitions, Types, and Examples

In this segment, Lake Hoff clarifies common confusions surrounding AI by defining it and discussing its daily applications, like the Google search engine. He introduces various types of AI, including reactive machines and self-aware AI, illustrating how AI ranges from basic reactive applications to complex systems that could theoretically understand emotions. The explanation includes examples of AI's use in daily life and explores theoretical AI types that have not yet been fully realized.

10:01

๐Ÿ” Exploring AI Domains and Machine Learning Relationships

This paragraph explores different AI domains such as machine learning, neural networks, robotics, and expert systems, each differentiated by their approach to solving problems. Lake Hoff clarifies the relationship between AI and machine learning, emphasizing that machine learning is a subset of AI used for decision-making without explicit programming. The session further discusses how AI encompasses various techniques to improve problem-solving and decision-making.

15:01

๐Ÿ“š Detailed Explanation of Machine Learning Types and Processes

Here, the focus shifts to machine learning, explaining its typesโ€”supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. Each type is detailed with examples and their applications, such as image classification and navigation. Lake Hoff discusses how these learning types differ in their approach to training and their applications in solving real-world problems. The explanation helps demystify how AI learns from data and applies this learning to automate complex tasks.

20:01

๐Ÿง  Insights into Deep Learning and Neural Networks

This section delves into deep learning, illustrating its role in mimicking human brain functions through neural networks. Lake Hoff explains the structure of deep neural networks, including input, hidden, and output layers, and how they process information. The discussion also covers the basic unit of computation in neural networks, known as a perceptron, which plays a crucial role in analyzing and processing data inputs.

25:04

๐Ÿ”ฌ Advanced AI: Exploring Artificial Neural Networks Types

Lake Hoff introduces various advanced artificial neural networks like convolutional and recurrent neural networks, explaining their specific uses in fields like image and signal processing. This part also touches on autoencoders and their applications in dimensionality reduction and generative models, offering insights into how these networks are structured and function to solve more complex problems in AI.

30:05

๐Ÿ“ˆ Bayesian Networks and Machine Intelligence Testing

This paragraph discusses Bayesian networks, which are used for probabilistic modeling and prediction, and the Turing test, designed to evaluate a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behavior indistinguishable from that of a human. Lake Hoff explains how these concepts are integral to understanding and developing AI that can interact naturally and intelligently with human users.

35:07

๐ŸŒŸ Exploring AI in Gaming and Reinforcement Learning

Lake Hoff shifts the discussion towards reinforcement learning's application in gaming, specifically through an example of a reinforcement learning scenario. This section explains how reinforcement learning involves an agent learning from the environment to achieve specific goals, using gaming as a relatable example to demonstrate how AI can learn and adapt through trial and error.

40:09

๐Ÿค” Comprehensive Review of AI Interview Questions

This extensive paragraph provides a thorough overview of various AI interview questions, offering insights and detailed explanations aimed to prepare viewers for job interviews in AI. It covers practical AI applications, theoretical concepts, and technical definitions, ensuring a comprehensive understanding of AI's vast domain.

45:10

๐Ÿ”Ž Scenario-Based AI Problem Solving and Strategy

Concluding the session, Lake Hoff tackles scenario-based AI interview questions, demonstrating how theoretical AI knowledge is applied to solve complex real-world problems. This segment helps viewers visualize how AI strategies are formulated and executed, reinforcing the practical applications of AI discussed throughout the video.

Mindmap

Keywords

๐Ÿ’กArtificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial Intelligence, often abbreviated as AI, refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. In the context of the video, AI is discussed as a crucial tool for analyzing large amounts of data to grow businesses. It is the overarching field that includes machine learning and deep learning.

๐Ÿ’กMachine Learning

Machine Learning is a subset of AI that involves the use of data and algorithms to enable machines to learn and improve from experience without being explicitly programmed. The video explains that machine learning allows machines to make decisions based on data, which is central to its function.

๐Ÿ’กDeep Learning

Deep Learning is a subset of machine learning that uses artificial neural networks to solve complex problems. It is inspired by the human brain and its neural networks to recognize patterns and solve higher-level tasks. The video emphasizes deep learning as a field that mimics the brain's mechanisms to enable machines to process and analyze large volumes of data.

๐Ÿ’กData Science

Data Science is the broader field that encompasses AI and is concerned with extracting knowledge and insights from data. The video describes data science as the process of deriving useful insights from data, which is essential for solving problems and making informed decisions in business.

๐Ÿ’กReinforcement Learning

Reinforcement Learning is a type of machine learning where an agent learns to make decisions by taking actions in an environment to maximize some notion of cumulative reward. The video uses an example of a game to illustrate how reinforcement learning works, where the agent learns through trial and error to achieve a goal.

๐Ÿ’กNeural Networks

Neural Networks are computing systems inspired by the human brain that are designed to recognize patterns. They consist of layers of interconnected nodes, and deep learning uses these networks to model complex relationships. The video explains that neural networks are a fundamental concept in deep learning.

๐Ÿ’กQ Learning

Q Learning is a specific type of reinforcement learning algorithm that an agent uses to learn the value of an action in a particular state. The video describes it as a method where an agent tries to learn the optimal policy from its past experiences, which are sequences of actions, states, and rewards.

๐Ÿ’กExploration vs. Exploitation

Exploration vs. Exploitation is a fundamental trade-off in the field of reinforcement learning. Exploration involves searching for new information, while exploitation is about using the known information to gain rewards. The video explains this concept using the example of a fox choosing whether to eat nearby meat or venture closer to a tiger for larger rewards.

๐Ÿ’กOverfitting

Overfitting occurs when a machine learning model learns the training data too well, including its noise and outliers, leading to poor generalization on new, unseen data. The video discusses methods to prevent overfitting, such as cross-validation, adding more data, removing irrelevant features, early stopping, and regularization techniques.

๐Ÿ’กDropout

Dropout is a regularization technique used in neural networks to prevent overfitting. It involves randomly deactivating a subset of neurons during the training process, which helps the model to generalize better. The video mentions dropout as a method to randomly select and drop out neurons during training to improve the network's performance.

๐Ÿ’กNatural Language Processing (NLP)

Natural Language Processing is a field of AI that focuses on the interaction between computers and human languages. It involves both natural language understanding, which is about comprehending the text, and natural language generation, which is about generating text. The video explains NLP as a technique used in text mining to understand and derive insights from human language.

Highlights

Introduction to AI interview preparation and the importance of AI in analyzing massive data for business growth.

Explanation of the differences between AI, machine learning, and deep learning.

Clarification of the subsets within AI: data science, machine learning, and deep learning.

Detailed breakdown of the various types of AI from reactive machines to self-aware AI.

Insight into the domains of AI, including machine learning, neural networks, robotics, and more.

Discussion on the relationships between machine learning and AI, emphasizing the role of machine learning as a subset of AI.

Overview of the types of machine learning: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning.

Introduction to Q-learning, a reinforcement learning algorithm, with a focus on its application in AI.

Explanation of deep learning and how it mimics human brain functions to solve complex problems.

Breakdown of the different types of artificial neural networks and their specific applications.

Overview of Bayesian networks and their use in predicting the probability of various outcomes based on known conditions.

Exploration of the Turing test and its significance in determining machine intelligence.

Discussion on the reinforcement learning process and its analogy to human learning in unfamiliar environments.

Explanation of the different algorithms used for hyperparameter optimization in machine learning.

Detailed strategies to prevent overfitting in machine learning models, ensuring more reliable predictions.